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Stereotypical Neglect of Military Research, Development, and Acquisition for Biodefense

Frank L. Smith

in American Biodefense: How Dangerous Ideas about Biological Weapons Shape National Security

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801452710
eISBN:
9780801455162
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801452710.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Security Studies

This chapter examines the history of military research, development, and acquisition for biodefense, from pre-World War II through the 2003 Iraq War. Neglect in each area is evident throughout the ... More


Improvement, 1921–1925

Thomas I. Faith

in Behind the Gas Mask: The U.S. Chemical Warfare Service in War and Peace

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252038686
eISBN:
9780252096624
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252038686.003.0005
Subject:
History, Military History

This chapter examines the Chemical Warfare Service's (CWS) efforts to improve its public image and its reputation in the military in the first half of the 1920s. It shows that while the National ... More


Fashioning a Frightful Weapon of War

Scott Christianson

in The Last Gasp: The Rise and Fall of the American Gas Chamber

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520255623
eISBN:
9780520945616
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520255623.003.0003
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

The Great War that began in August 1914 ushered in deadly new weapons, including modern artillery, tanks, airplanes, and machine guns. The terror of modern chemical warfare was unleashed on the world ... More


Crisis, 1919–1920

Thomas I. Faith

in Behind the Gas Mask: The U.S. Chemical Warfare Service in War and Peace

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252038686
eISBN:
9780252096624
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252038686.003.0004
Subject:
History, Military History

This chapter discusses the Chemical Warfare Service's (CWS) struggle to continue chemical weapons work in the face of a hostile political environment as the U.S. Army sought to digest the lessons ... More


Devising “Constructive Peacetime Uses”

Scott Christianson

in The Last Gasp: The Rise and Fall of the American Gas Chamber

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520255623
eISBN:
9780520945616
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520255623.003.0004
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

When World War I ended, the United States shut down its poison gas plants for a time. But General Amos Fries and the chemical industry vowed to fight the dismantling of the precious apparatus they ... More


Battle, 1918

Thomas I. Faith

in Behind the Gas Mask: The U.S. Chemical Warfare Service in War and Peace

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252038686
eISBN:
9780252096624
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252038686.003.0003
Subject:
History, Military History

This chapter focuses on the American Expeditionary Force's (AEF) experiences with poison gas on the Western Front and the logistical effort made by the United States to support chemical warfare ... More


Behind the Gas Mask: The U.S. Chemical Warfare Service in War and Peace

Thomas I. Faith

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252038686
eISBN:
9780252096624
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252038686.001.0001
Subject:
History, Military History

This book offers an institutional history of the Chemical Warfare Service (CWS), the department tasked with improving the Army's ability to use and defend against chemical weapons during and after ... More


Origins, 1917

Thomas I. Faith

in Behind the Gas Mask: The U.S. Chemical Warfare Service in War and Peace

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252038686
eISBN:
9780252096624
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252038686.003.0002
Subject:
History, Military History

This chapter examines the United States' chemical warfare program as it developed before the nation began sending soldiers to fight in France during World War I. In 1917, the United States was ... More


Legacy, 1926–1929

Thomas I. Faith

in Behind the Gas Mask: The U.S. Chemical Warfare Service in War and Peace

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252038686
eISBN:
9780252096624
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252038686.003.0006
Subject:
History, Military History

This chapter evaluates the successes and failures of the Chemical Warfare Service (CWS) during the second half of the 1920s, in light of the organization's ultimate incapacity to influence foreign ... More


Introduction

Thomas I. Faith

in Behind the Gas Mask: The U.S. Chemical Warfare Service in War and Peace

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252038686
eISBN:
9780252096624
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252038686.003.0001
Subject:
History, Military History

This book documents the institutional history of the Chemical Warfare Service (CWS), the U.S. Army organization responsible for chemical warfare, from its origins in 1917 through Amos A. Fries's ... More


War: from humanitarian relief to prevention

Douglas Holdstock

in International Co-operation in Health

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780192631985
eISBN:
9780191723582
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192631985.003.0007
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter examines the impact of war on health. It begins by considering the health impact and response to specific types of weapons, and the role of the arms trade. It then discusses the broader ... More


Chemical Warfare in Yemen

Asher Orkaby

in Beyond the Arab Cold War: The International History of the Yemen Civil War, 1962-68

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
June 2017
ISBN:
9780190618445
eISBN:
9780190618476
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190618445.003.0007
Subject:
History, Middle East History, World Modern History

Nasser’s “long-breath strategy” from 1966 through the end of 1967 was focused on maintaining the security of the strategic triangle while using fewer troops. Instead, an intensive bombing campaign ... More


Threats to the CBW Prohibition Regimes: Biodefense Pushed Too Far

in Preventing a Biochemical Arms Race

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780804782753
eISBN:
9780804786157
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804782753.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Conflict Politics and Policy

This chapter discusses the promotion of biodefense. If biodefense is pushed too far, the question naturally arises whether this can cause problems that threaten the regimes or undermine other ... More


Experimentation

Emma Newlands

in Civilians into soldiers: War, the body and British Army recruits, 1939-45

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780719088049
eISBN:
9781781707869
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719088049.003.0004
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter explores the medical and scientific experiments that were conducted on army personnel between 1939 and 1945. These included trials of therapeutic drugs, synthetic stimulants and exposure ... More


The Spider Web Chart

Nick Fischer

in Spider Web: The Birth of American Anticommunism

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252040023
eISBN:
9780252098222
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252040023.003.0004
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter examines how the anticommunist movement created the so-called Spider Web Chart that articulated its narrative of a vast and deadly conspiracy against America mounted from within by ... More


Defending Nature: The Evolution of the International Legal Restriction of Military Ecocide

Peter Hough

in The Global Community Yearbook of International Law and Jurisprudence 2014: Volume I

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2015
ISBN:
9780190270513
eISBN:
9780190271909
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190270513.003.0006
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

Military ecocide—the wanton destruction of the environment in the course of warfare—emerged as a term in the early 1970s in the wake of the United States’ infamous jungle defoliation campaign ... More


Beyond the Arab Cold War: The International History of the Yemen Civil War, 1962-68

Asher Orkaby

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
June 2017
ISBN:
9780190618445
eISBN:
9780190618476
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190618445.001.0001
Subject:
History, Middle East History, World Modern History

Beyond the Arab Cold War brings the Yemen Civil War (1962–68) to the forefront of modern Middle East history, in a comprehensive account that features multilingual and multinational archives and oral ... More


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