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Centralization

Anthony Ferner, Paddy Gunnigle, Javier Quintanilla, Hartmut Wächter, and Tony Edwards

in American Multinationals in Europe: Managing Employment Relations Across National Borders

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199274635
eISBN:
9780191706530
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199274635.003.0010
Subject:
Business and Management, HRM / IR

This chapter considers the balance between central control and subsidiary autonomy in HR policy and practice. US multinationals have been shown to centralize control of international HR policy ... More


Liberalization and Its Discontents

Russell Hardin

in Liberalism, Constitutionalism, and Democracy

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198290841
eISBN:
9780191599415
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198290845.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

As there are two liberalisms, so also there are two major liberalizing transitions that non‐liberal polities may make. They may become politically liberal and they may become economically liberal. It ... More


Central Control and Departmental Autonomy

Colin Thain and Maurice Wright

in The Treasury and Whitehall: The Planning and Control of Public Expenditure, 1976–1993

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198277842
eISBN:
9780191684203
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198277842.003.0024
Subject:
Political Science, UK Politics, Political Economy

It has previously been argued that one important element in the Treasury's historic mission in controlling public spending is to act as a brake on its growth. The intermittent achievement of that ... More


The Treasury and FMI

Colin Thain and Maurice Wright

in The Treasury and Whitehall: The Planning and Control of Public Expenditure, 1976–1993

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198277842
eISBN:
9780191684203
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198277842.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, UK Politics, Political Economy

During the 1980s and 1990s, the planning and control of expenditure was conducted within the context of major changes in the Civil Service structure and organisation. A programme to reduce the size ... More


Is the Neural Basis of Vocalisation Different in Non-Human Primates and Homo Sapiens?

Detlev Ploog

in The Speciation of Modern Homo Sapiens

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197263112
eISBN:
9780191734885
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197263112.003.0007
Subject:
Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology

From an evolutionary perspective, the voice was a prerequisite for the emergence of speech. Speech, the most advanced mode of vocal communication, became possible only after gradual transformations ... More


‘Central Control’ Reorganisation in the NHS in the 2000s

Ian Greener, Barbara E. Harrington, David J. Hunter, Russell Mannion, and Martin Powell

in Reforming healthcare: What's the evidence?

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9781447307112
eISBN:
9781447310938
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447307112.003.0004
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter considers how Labour put in place a series of organisational changes based around the goal of achieving greater ‘central control’ over implementation (or ‘delivery’, as it became known) ... More


Hormone regulation and the evolution of frog metamorphic diversity

Daniel R. Buchholz, Christine L. Moskalik, Saurabh S. Kulkarni, Amy R. Hollar, and Allison Ng

in Mechanisms of Life History Evolution: The Genetics and Physiology of Life History Traits and Trade-Offs

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199568765
eISBN:
9780191774591
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199568765.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

A vast body of work exists on the hormonal regulation of frog metamorphosis, and a non-intersecting set of literature describes the large diversity and evolution of frog reproductive modes. Uniting ... More


Public Office and Private Property

James E. Shaw

in The Justice of Venice: Authorities and Liberties in the Urban Economy, 1550-1700

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197263778
eISBN:
9780191734823
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197263778.003.0003
Subject:
History, European Modern History

Removal of the judges' right to discretion, to exercise their arbitrium, meant that they were less likely to convict criminals, instead choosing to let trials lapse altogether. This chapter discusses ... More


Centrifugal Empire: Central-Local Relations in China

Jae Ho Chung

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780231176200
eISBN:
9780231540681
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231176200.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Despite the destabilizing potential of governing of a vast territory and a large multicultural population, the centralized government of the People’s Republic of China has held together for decades, ... More


The Legacies of Delta History

Jay R. Lund, Ellen Hanak, William E. Fleenor, William A. Bennett, Richard E. Howitt, Jeffrey F. Mount, and Peter B. Moyle

in Comparing Futures for the Sacramento - San Joaquin Delta

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520261976
eISBN:
9780520945371
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520261976.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

The European settlement in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta resulted in the transformation of forested areas and vegetation into agricultural sites and urban communities. Vast areas of tidal wetlands ... More


China Goes Local (Again): Assessing Post-Mao Decentralization

Jae Ho Chung

in Centrifugal Empire: Central-Local Relations in China

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780231176200
eISBN:
9780231540681
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231176200.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Assesses the impact of post-Mao decentralization on central-local relations and concludes that the former has not necessarily or uniformly favored localities at the expense of central control.


The rise of plural control1

Philip A. Woodes

in Transforming education policy: Shaping a democratic future

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9781847427366
eISBN:
9781447304067
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781847427366.003.0004
Subject:
Social Work, Social Policy

This chapter examines the 1988 Education Reform Act in England. It particularly examines the change in governance that took place, highlighting the development of an education system that is more in ... More


The Center’s Perceptions of Local Bureaucracy in China: A Typological First-Cut

Jae Ho Chung

in Centrifugal Empire: Central-Local Relations in China

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780231176200
eISBN:
9780231540681
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231176200.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Employs a triple concept of “agents,” “representatives,” and “principals” in illustrating the trajectory in which Chinese leaders' perception of local bureaucracy has evolved over time. It also looks ... More


The Center’s Instruments of Local Control

Jae Ho Chung

in Centrifugal Empire: Central-Local Relations in China

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780231176200
eISBN:
9780231540681
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231176200.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Suggests that the People’s Republic’s principal mode of local control resembles that of the traditional China more than that of the pre-1949 revolutionary era in terms of preventive mechanisms, ... More


Determinants of Local Discretion in Implementation: Exploring Policy-Contingent Variations

Jae Ho Chung

in Centrifugal Empire: Central-Local Relations in China

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780231176200
eISBN:
9780231540681
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231176200.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Presupposes that, with other things (i.e., patronage networks and societal demands) being similar among different regions, the level of local discretion permitted in implementation is likely to vary ... More


Stalin, Syrtsov, Lominadze: Preparations for the “Second Great Breakthrough”

Oleg Khlevniuk

in The Lost Politburo Transcripts: From Collective Rule to Stalin's Dictatorship

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300134247
eISBN:
9780300152227
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300134247.003.0005
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter analyzes the transcript of the November 4, 1930 joint session of the Politburo and the Presidium of the Central Control Commission on the Syrtsov–Lominadze affair. The analysis indicates ... More


Pubs and Patriots: The Drink Crisis in Britain during World War One

Robert Duncan

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9781846318955
eISBN:
9781781381021
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:
10.5949/liverpool/9781846318955.001.0001
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History

In the midst of the First World War concern arose as to the virtues of pursuing intoxication at a time of national emergency. As the military front was supposedly let down by drinkers and shirkers at ... More


The Way They Talked Then: The Discourse of Politics in the Soviet Party Politburo in the Late 1920s

Robert Service

in The Lost Politburo Transcripts: From Collective Rule to Stalin's Dictatorship

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300134247
eISBN:
9780300152227
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300134247.003.0007
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter, which analyzes the transcript of the September 8, 1927 joint meeting of the Politburo and the Central Control Commission Presidium, explains that this meeting focused on the denouement ... More


Central control: war and nationalisation

James Nicholls

in The Politics of Alcohol: A History of the Drink Question in England

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
July 2012
ISBN:
9780719077050
eISBN:
9781781702758
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719077050.003.0012
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

In 1906, the Liberals won a landslide General Election victory. Once again they found themselves in a position to make their mark on the future direction of the drink question. This time, there was ... More


Integration of Social And Labour Market Policy Institutions: Towards More Control And Responsiveness?

Cyrielle Champion and Giuliano Bonoli

in Social Policy Review 26: Analysis and debate in social policy, 2014

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9781447315568
eISBN:
9781447315582
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447315568.003.0011
Subject:
Political Science, Public Policy

This chapter examines the capacity of welfare reforms to deliver their objectives, focusing on increasing responsiveness to individual needs and strengthening central control. Based on a comparison ... More


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