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Computational Theories

Paul F. A. Bartha

in By Parallel Reasoning: The Construction and Evaluation of Analogical Arguments

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195325539
eISBN:
9780199776313
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195325539.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter selectively reviews computational theories of analogical reasoning from Evans, Gentner, Holyoak and Thagard, Ashley, Carbonell, and Hofstadter. While these theories provide insight into ... More


Issues in case-based reasoning

Abraham Rodríguez Rodríguez

in Similarity and Categorization

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198506287
eISBN:
9780191686962
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198506287.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter provides an introduction to the paradigm of case-based reasoning, an approach to the design of knowledge-based systems which implements the idea that classification and problem-solving ... More


Dynamics of Inductive Inference in a Unified Framework

Itzhak Gilboa, Larry Samuelson, and David Schmeidler

in Analogies and Theories: Formal Models of Reasoning

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780198738022
eISBN:
9780191801419
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198738022.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This chapter presents a formal model that captures both case‐based and rule‐based reasoning. The model is general enough to describe Bayesian reasoning, which may be viewed as an extreme example of ... More


Analogies and Theories: The Role of Simplicity and the Emergence of Norms

Itzhak Gilboa, Larry Samuelson, and David Schmeidler

in Analogies and Theories: Formal Models of Reasoning

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780198738022
eISBN:
9780191801419
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198738022.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This chapter first adapts the framework of the model of Gilboa, Samuelson, and Schmeidler (GSS, 2013, Chapter 3) and defines case-based and rule-based reasoning. It then deals with a purely exogenous ... More


BEYOND VAPORWARE?

Wendell Wallach and Colin Allen

in Moral Machines: Teaching Robots Right from Wrong

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195374049
eISBN:
9780199871889
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195374049.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

A goal of machine morality is not just to raise many questions but to provide a resource for further development of artificial moral agents. Chapter 9 surveys software that is currently under ... More


Using Introspective Reasoning to Improve CBR System Performance

Josep Lluís Arcos, Oğuz Mülâyim, and David B. Leake

in Metareasoning: Thinking about Thinking

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262014809
eISBN:
9780262295284
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262014809.003.0011
Subject:
Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence

Case-based reasoning (CBR) is a problem-solving methodology that exploits prior experiences when solving new problems, retrieving relevantly similar cases and adapting them to fit new needs. This ... More


Analogies and Theories: Formal Models of Reasoning

Itzhak Gilboa, Larry Samuelson, and David Schmeidler

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780198738022
eISBN:
9780191801419
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198738022.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

The book describes formal models of reasoning that are aimed at capturing the way that economic agents and decision makers in general think about their environment and make predictions based on their ... More


Inductive Inference: An Axiomatic Approach

Itzhak Gilboa, Larry Samuelson, and David Schmeidler

in Analogies and Theories: Formal Models of Reasoning

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780198738022
eISBN:
9780191801419
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198738022.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This chapter focuses on case-based reasoning. It offers an axiomatic approach to the following problem: given a database of observations, how should different eventualities be ranked? The approach is ... More


IRBs and the Problem of “Local Precedents”

Laura Stark

in Human Subjects Research Regulation: Perspectives on the Future

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780262027465
eISBN:
9780262320825
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262027465.003.0015
Subject:
Biology, Bioethics

Regulators have officially recognized what researchers have long known: human subjects review boards request different (sometimes contradictory) modifications to a given study before approval. In ... More


Retrieving and Reframing Catholic Casuistry

M. Cathleen Kaveny

in The Crisis of Authority in Catholic Modernity

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199778775
eISBN:
9780190258306
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199778775.003.0009
Subject:
Religion, History of Christianity

This chapter examines “casuistry,” the dominant mode of moral theology in the Roman Catholic Church that emphasizes the morally right—and the morally wrong—courses of action in a wide range of ... More


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