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Risk Beliefs and Individual Rationality

W. Kip Viscusi

in Rational Risk Policy: The 1996 Arne Ryde Memorial Lectures

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198293637
eISBN:
9780191596995
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198293631.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

Risk beliefs often reflect systematic biases, such as the overestimation of small risks and underestimation of large risks. The prospective reference theory model explains these and other anomalies ... More


Risk Analysis and Regulatory Policy

W. Kip Viscusi

in Rational Risk Policy: The 1996 Arne Ryde Memorial Lectures

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198293637
eISBN:
9780191596995
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198293631.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

Analysis of carcinogen regulations implies that regulation is often not driven by the magnitude of the risk, but by whether the chemicals involved are synthetic chemicals. Risk assessments are often ... More


The changing cigarette: chemical studies and bioassays

Ilse Hoffmann and Dietrich Hoffmann

in Tobacco: Science, policy and public health

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199566655
eISBN:
9780191594410
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199566655.003.0006
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses the identification of carcinogens and tumour promoters in tobacco smoke, changes in cigarette smoke composition with various design changes, and observations on cigarette ... More


Tobacco carcinogenesis: mechanisms and biomarkers

Stephen S. Hecht

in Tobacco: Science, policy and public health

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199566655
eISBN:
9780191594410
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199566655.003.0007
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The indisputable relationship between the world's most widespread exogenous chemical carcinogen exposure — tobacco smoke — and cancer, provides a framework for a better understanding of cancer ... More


Toxic Town: IBM, Pollution, and Industrial Risks

Peter C. Little

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814760697
eISBN:
9780814764510
Item type:
book
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814760697.001.0001
Subject:
Anthropology, Medical Anthropology

In 1924, IBM built its first plant in Endicott, New York. Now, Endicott is a contested toxic waste site. With its landscape thoroughly contaminated by carcinogens, Endicott is the subject of one of ... More


The Scientific Background

Kristin Shrader-frechette General

in Regulating Toxic Substances: A Philosophy of Science and the Law

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195074369
eISBN:
9780199852932
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195074369.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter provides some scientific background of risk assessment and sets up some of the institutional questions concerning the appropriate evidentiary standards needed within torts and ... More


Scientific Procedures in Regulatory Agencies

Kristin Shrader-frechette General

in Regulating Toxic Substances: A Philosophy of Science and the Law

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195074369
eISBN:
9780199852932
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195074369.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The chapter discusses some of the risk assessment issues that arise in administrative agencies charged with regulating carcinogens. It is argued that present assessment strategies, as well as some ... More


Cancer

Elizabeth Ward

in Occupational and Environmental Health

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780190662677
eISBN:
9780190662707
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190662677.003.0024
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter provides an overview of the mechanisms by which cancer develops and the importance of exogenous exposures in cancer causation. It describes the magnitude of cancer as a public health ... More


Occupation

JACK SIEMIATYCKI, LESLEY RICHARDSON, and PAOLO BOFFETTA

in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195149616
eISBN:
9780199865062
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195149616.003.0018
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses the link between occupational carcinogens and cancer. Topics covered include sources of evidence on risk to humans due to chemicals, published literature in the field of ... More


Air Pollution

JONATHAN M. SAMET and AARON J. COHEN

in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195149616
eISBN:
9780199865062
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195149616.003.0019
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter provides an overview of the evidence on the connections between outdoor and indoor air pollution and lung cancer, as well as other types of malignancy. The evidence on air pollution and ... More


Regulating Carcinogens

JONATHAN M. SAMET, THOMAS A. BURKE, and LYNN GOLDMAN

in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195149616
eISBN:
9780199865062
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195149616.003.0072
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter provides a broad overview of governmental regulatory approaches to controlling exposures to carcinogens. It focuses specifically on statutes related to the United States, while giving ... More


Intracranial Neoplasms

Lorene M. Nelson, Caroline M. Tanner, Stephen K. Van Den Eeden, and Valerie M. McGuire

in Neuroepidemiology: From principles to practice

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195133790
eISBN:
9780199863730
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195133790.003.14
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter begins with a discussion of the taxonomy of primary brain tumors, with a focus on gliomas, meningiomas, and grading systems for these tumors. It discusses methodological challenges for ... More


The epidemic of respiratory cancer associated with erionite fibres in the Cappadocian region of Turkey

Y. I. Baris, L. Simonato, R. Saracci, and R. Winkelmann

in Geographical and Environmental Epidemiology: Methods for Small Area Studies

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780192622358
eISBN:
9780191723636
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192622358.003.0026
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter presents a case study of an epidemic of malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer in a few small villages in Turkey. Detail clinical, epidemiological, and environmental studies identified a ... More


Cancer

Robert L. Perlman

in Evolution and Medicine

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199661718
eISBN:
9780191774720
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199661718.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Cancer exemplifies the evolutionary theory of aging. The incidence of most cancers increases with age and more than half of all cancers are detected in people over 60. Evolution and selection can ... More


Activists’ Concerns about Health

Jessica Smartt Gullion

in Fracking the Neighborhood: Reluctant Activists and Natural Gas Drilling

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780262029766
eISBN:
9780262329798
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029766.003.0004
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

This chapter deals specifically with the reported health concerns related to natural gas development (fracking). Included is a discussion of chemicals and pollution and concurrent health effects; ... More


Ionizing Radiation

Amy Berrington de GonzÁlez, André Bouville, Preetha Rajaraman, and Mary Schubauer-Berigan

in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2017
ISBN:
9780190238667
eISBN:
9780190238698
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190238667.003.0013
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology, Public Health

Ionizing radiation is a universal carcinogen due to its ability to induce cancer in most organs following exposure at any age, including in utero. Several organs are especially radiosensitive, ... More


Occupational Cancer

Kyle Steenland, Shelia Hoar Zahm, and A. Blair

in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2017
ISBN:
9780190238667
eISBN:
9780190238698
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190238667.003.0016
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter reviews the past and current history of occupational cancer epidemiology, and indicates which occupational exposures are presently considered to be definite or probable carcinogens. It ... More


Air Pollution

Jonathan M. Samet and Aaron J. Cohen

in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2017
ISBN:
9780190238667
eISBN:
9780190238698
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190238667.003.0017
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology, Public Health

A wide variety of manmade and naturally occurring air pollutants are known to cause cancer. Diverse exposures such as tobacco smoke, radionuclides (radon), chemicals (benzene, mustard gas, and ... More


Water Contaminants

Kenneth P. Cantor, Craig M. Steinmaus, Mary H. Ward, and Laura E. Beane Freeman

in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2017
ISBN:
9780190238667
eISBN:
9780190238698
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190238667.003.0018
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology, Public Health

Humans have long recognized the hazards of microbial contamination of drinking water. Only since the 1960s, however, have epidemiologic studies systematically examined whether naturally occurring ... More


Pharmaceutical Drugs Other Than Hormones

Marie C. Bradley, Michael A. O’Rorke, Janine A. Cooper, Søren Friis, and Laurel A. Habel

in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2017
ISBN:
9780190238667
eISBN:
9780190238698
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190238667.003.0023
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology, Public Health

Current regulatory programs for drug safety are not designed to identify adverse events that have a long induction time or are rare, such as most cancers. Meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials ... More


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