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Cancer Incidence and Mortality in England and Wales: Trends and Risk Factors

Anthony Swerdlow, Isabel Dos Santos Silva, and Richard Doll

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780192627483
eISBN:
9780191723698
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192627483.001.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Cancer causes a quarter of all deaths in England and Wales. There is great professional and public interest in cancer trends, but no satisfactory source to which to turn to find information about ... More


Principles of Screening

BERNARD LEVIN and PHILIP C. PROROK

in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195149616
eISBN:
9780199865062
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195149616.003.0070
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter focuses on cancer screening. Screening for cancer provides an alternative approach to cancer control. Cancer screening is defined as the testing of apparently healthy volunteers from the ... More


Using Public Health Data to Evaluate Screening Programs: Application to Prostate Cancer

Ruth Etzioni, Larry Kessler, and Dante Dl Tommaso

in Monitoring the Health of Populations: Statistical Principles and Methods for Public Health Surveillance

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195146493
eISBN:
9780199864928
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195146493.003.0006
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter describes the use of computer modeling to quantify the link between prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening and prostate cancer incidence and mortality. Data resources for both cancer ... More


Cancer Screening

Jennifer M. Croswell, Russell P. Harris, and Barnett S. Kramer

in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2017
ISBN:
9780190238667
eISBN:
9780190238698
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190238667.003.0063
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology, Public Health

Screening has long been portrayed as an inherently beneficial activity that saves lives, rather than as a complex mixture of potential benefits and harms that must be carefully weighed for each ... More


Making screening policy

Angela E. Raffle and J. A. Muir Gray

in Screening: Evidence and practice

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199214495
eISBN:
9780191723742
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199214495.003.0008
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter shows how resources, values, beliefs, and commercial factors all influence screening policy, and gives clear insight into some of the ethical dilemmas involved. Case histories include ... More


Day to day management of screening for public health practitioners and programme managers

Angela E. Raffle and J. A. Muir Gray

in Screening: Evidence and practice

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199214495
eISBN:
9780191723742
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199214495.003.0007
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter provides a deep appreciation of the main issues that public health practitioners regularly deal with in screening, and how to approach them. This requires not only management skills, but ... More


The Aftermath

Handel Reynolds

in The Big Squeeze: A Social and Political History of the Controversial Mammogram

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801450938
eISBN:
9780801466007
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801450938.003.0004
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter discusses the legacy of the Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project (BCDDP), which was concluded in 1981. According to sociologist Maren Klawiter, the BCDDP represented a shift of ... More


Timing Is Everything

Handel Reynolds

in The Big Squeeze: A Social and Political History of the Controversial Mammogram

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801450938
eISBN:
9780801466007
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801450938.003.0002
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter examines three principal movements that set the stage for the auspicious debut of the process of mammography screening. First, the passage of the National Cancer Act of 1971 provided ... More


Synthesizing Evidence

Christa Teston

in Bodies in Flux: Scientific Methods for Negotiating Medical Uncertainty

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780226450520
eISBN:
9780226450834
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226450834.003.0004
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Medical professionals are inundated continually with new findings from clinical trials. To counter the otherwise overwhelming task of knowing how best to diagnose, treat, and prevent disease, small ... More


Safe or Sorry? Cancer Screening and Inductive Risk

Anya Plutynski

in Exploring Inductive Risk: Case Studies of Values in Science

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
June 2017
ISBN:
9780190467715
eISBN:
9780190467753
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190467715.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The general assumption behind cancer screening has been that early diagnosis and treatment is effective at reducing cancer-related mortality; this is broadly speaking true, for some cancer screening ... More


The Nature of Epidemiologic Evidence

David A. Savitz

in Interpreting Epidemiologic Evidence: Strategies for Study Design & Analysis

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195108408
eISBN:
9780199865765
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195108408.003.0002
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter begins with a discussion of the goals of epidemiologic research, which is the quantification of the causal relation between exposure and disease. It then discusses the measurement of ... More


Public Knowledge of Benefits of Breast and Prostate Cancer Screening in Europe

Gerd Gigerenzer

in Simply Rational: Decision Making in the Real World

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780199390076
eISBN:
9780190240684
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199390076.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Making informed decisions about breast and prostate cancer screening requires knowledge of its benefits. To assess Europeans’ knowledge about the effectivity of these screenings in reducing ... More


Aligning Clinical Practice with Best Evidence of Comparative Effectiveness: Payment Policy for Evidence-Based Medical Care

Carol M. Ashton and Nelda P. Wray

in Comparative Effectiveness Research: Evidence, Medicine, and Policy

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199968565
eISBN:
9780199346080
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199968565.003.0011
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

Contemporary U.S. health care is characterized by the under-use of services known to improve patients’ outcomes and the over-use of services beyond what can benefit patients. Large proportions of ... More


The Promise and Promotion of CEA

Peter J. Neumann

in Using Cost-Effectiveness Analysis to Improve Health Care: Opportunities and barriers

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195171860
eISBN:
9780199865345
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195171860.003.0002
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter traces the intellectual roots of cost-effectiveness analysis in health care. It also provides a brief history of CEA in health applications. It argues that the emergence of CEA in the ... More


Decide As You Would with Full Information!: An Argument Against ex ante Pareto

Marc Fleurbaey and Alex Voorhoeve

in Inequalities in Health: Concepts, Measures, and Ethics

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199931392
eISBN:
9780199345731
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199931392.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Policy-makers must sometimes choose between an alternative which has somewhat lower expected value for each person, but which will substantially improve the outcomes of the worst off, or an ... More


How I Got Started Teaching Physicians and Judges Risk Literacy

Gerd Gigerenzer

in Simply Rational: Decision Making in the Real World

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780199390076
eISBN:
9780190240684
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199390076.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

A personal account of how the author came to recognize the importance of statistical literacy, particularly in the fields of health care and the law, and went on to teach physicians and judges how to ... More


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