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Triumph of the Fungi: A Rotten History

Nicholas P. Money

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195189711
eISBN:
9780199790265
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195189711.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Microbiology

This book is concerned with the most devastating fungal diseases in history. These are the plagues of trees and crop plants caused by invisible spores that have reshaped entire landscapes and ... More


The Chocaholic Mushroom

Nicholas P. Money

in Triumph of the Fungi: A Rotten History

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195189711
eISBN:
9780199790265
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195189711.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Microbiology

The pods of the tropical plant cacao, Theobroma cacao, are the source of chocolate. This crop is afflicted by a multitude of fungal diseases, including witches’ broom, frosty pod rot, and black pod. ... More


Introduction: The Biology, Antiquity, and Modern Uses of the Chocolate Tree (Theobroma cacao L.)

Cameron L. McNeil

in Chocolate in Mesoamerica: A Cultural History of Cacao

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813029535
eISBN:
9780813039503
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813029535.003.0001
Subject:
Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology

In the pre-Columbian cultures of the Americas, the Theobroma cacao L. tree or commonly known as the “cacao tree” played a very significant and central role in the culture and religion of those ... More


Cacao Production, Tribute, and Wealth in Sixteenth-century Izalcos, El Salvador

William R. Fowler

in Chocolate in Mesoamerica: A Cultural History of Cacao

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813029535
eISBN:
9780813039503
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813029535.003.0015
Subject:
Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology

This chapter discusses changing trends in the production of cacao plants in Izalcos, El Salvador, during the sixteenth century. The use of cacao as money in Mesoamerica is connected to long-distance ... More


Soconusco Cacao Farmers Past and Present: Continuity and Change in an Ancient Way of Life

Janine Gasco

in Chocolate in Mesoamerica: A Cultural History of Cacao

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813029535
eISBN:
9780813039503
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813029535.003.0016
Subject:
Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology

This chapter focuses on the cacao farmers of the Soconusco region of Chiapas, Mexico. The Soconusco region is ideally suited for cacao production; in prehistoric times and historic times the region ... More


Traditional Cacao Use in Modern Mesoamerica

Cameron L. McNeil

in Chocolate in Mesoamerica: A Cultural History of Cacao

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813029535
eISBN:
9780813039503
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813029535.003.0017
Subject:
Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology

Several Mesoamerican communities still cultivate or purchase cacao and use it in their foods and rituals. For many of these Mesoamerica communities, the consumption of cacao is closely associated ... More


From Chocolate Pots To Maya Gold: Belizean Cacao Farmers Through the Ages

Patricia A. McAnany and Satoru Muruta

in Chocolate in Mesoamerica: A Cultural History of Cacao

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813029535
eISBN:
9780813039503
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813029535.003.0021
Subject:
Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology

This chapter discusses the Belizean cacao farmers through the ages. It discusses the deep history of cacao cultivation in the Belize zone, which is demonstrated by the continuity of cacao farming ... More


The Determination of Cacao in Sample of Archaeological Interest

W. Jeffrey Hurst

in Chocolate in Mesoamerica: A Cultural History of Cacao

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813029535
eISBN:
9780813039503
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813029535.003.0005
Subject:
Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology

Although the use of cacao by the Mesoamerican people has been documented since the early Colonial period, archaeologists have been hindered from discovering the breadth of its use in rituals and in ... More


Brewing Distinction: The Development of Cacao Beverages in Formative Mesoamerica

John S. Henderson and Rosemary A. Joyce

in Chocolate in Mesoamerica: A Cultural History of Cacao

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813029535
eISBN:
9780813039503
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813029535.003.0007
Subject:
Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology

Cacao was commonly assumed to be originally cultivated for the purpose of producing the kind of drink described in the sixteenth century by fermenting the cacao seeds, drying or toasting them, ... More


The Language of Chocolate: References to Cacao on Classic Maya Drinking Vessels

David Stuart

in Chocolate in Mesoamerica: A Cultural History of Cacao

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813029535
eISBN:
9780813039503
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813029535.003.0009
Subject:
Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology

The importance of cacao in Classic Maya was often overlooked before the decipherment of glyphic texts seen on ceramics in 1980. The discovery of the meaning of the texts led to the conclusion that ... More


The Use and Representation of Cacao During the Classic Period at Copan, Honduras

Cameron L. McNeil, W. Jeffrey Hurst, and Robert J. Sharer

in Chocolate in Mesoamerica: A Cultural History of Cacao

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813029535
eISBN:
9780813039503
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813029535.003.0011
Subject:
Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology

This chapter discusses the use and representation of cacao in Copan, Honduras, during the Classic period. Cacao in Copan, Honduras, played a significant role in rituals. In the mountains of the Copan ... More


Chocolate in Mesoamerica: A Cultural History of Cacao

Cameron McNeil (ed.)

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813029535
eISBN:
9780813039503
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813029535.001.0001
Subject:
Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology

New models of research and analysis, as well as breakthroughs in deciphering Mesoamerican writing, have recently produced a watershed of information on the regional use and the importance of cacao, ... More


Some Versions of Hybridity: cacao and Potosí

Diana de Armas Wilson

in Cervantes, the Novel, and the New World

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198160052
eISBN:
9780191673764
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198160052.003.0005
Subject:
Literature, European Literature

This chapter speculates on why the novel rises with special vigour in locations of culture that tolerate, and sometimes even flaunt hybridity. After a glance at the recent post-colonial debates on ... More


Cacao and Its Relatives in South America: An Overview of Taxonomy, Ecology, Biogeography, Chemistry, and Ethnobotany

Nathaniel Bletter and Douglas C. Daly

in Chocolate in Mesoamerica: A Cultural History of Cacao

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813029535
eISBN:
9780813039503
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813029535.003.0002
Subject:
Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology

This chapter discusses the taxonomy of all of the species of Theobrama and Herrania. Cacao belongs to the South American group of forty species of small trees closely related to the genera of ... More


The Domestication and Distribution of Theobroma cacao L. in the Neotropics

Nisao Ogata, Arturo Gómez-pompa, and Karl A. Taube

in Chocolate in Mesoamerica: A Cultural History of Cacao

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813029535
eISBN:
9780813039503
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813029535.003.0003
Subject:
Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology

The origins, domestication, and distribution of Theobroma cacao L. are controversial and difficult to discern because of their wide geographical distribution, human intervention, and because of the ... More


Cacaoc in Greater Nicoya: Ethnohistory and a Unique Tradition

Larry Steinbrenner

in Chocolate in Mesoamerica: A Cultural History of Cacao

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813029535
eISBN:
9780813039503
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813029535.003.0012
Subject:
Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology

In the first few decades after the Spanish conquest, cacaos was one of the most valued commodities produced by the lower Central American colonies along the Greater Nicoya region. The Greater Nicoya ... More


The Good and Evil of Chocolate in Colonial Mexico

Aguilar-moreno Manuel

in Chocolate in Mesoamerica: A Cultural History of Cacao

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813029535
eISBN:
9780813039503
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813029535.003.0013
Subject:
Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology

Cacao or cacahuaquahuitl was highly valued among the Aztecs. Cacao seeds were used as currency and were also used for creating ccahuaatl or chocolate which was then a prestigious beverage available ... More


Cacao in Ancient Maya Religion: First Fruit from the Maize Tree and other Tales from the Underworld

Simon Martin

in Chocolate in Mesoamerica: A Cultural History of Cacao

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813029535
eISBN:
9780813039503
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813029535.003.0008
Subject:
Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology

Ancient Maya, like other former agrarian societies of ancient times, had an abiding and intimate relationship with the natural world. Plants, trees, leaves, flowers, fruits, and roots were given a ... More


The Jaguar Tree (Theobroma bicolor Bonpl.)

Johanna Kufer and Cameron L. Mcneil

in Chocolate in Mesoamerica: A Cultural History of Cacao

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813029535
eISBN:
9780813039503
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813029535.003.0004
Subject:
Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology

This chapter discusses Theobroma bicolour Bonpl., which is one of the most important species of the genus Theobrama aside from the culturally significant Theobroma cacao L. Since prehistoric times, ... More


The History of the Word for ‘Cacao’ and Related Terms in Ancient Meso-America

Terrence Kaufman and John Justeson

in Chocolate in Mesoamerica: A Cultural History of Cacao

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813029535
eISBN:
9780813039503
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813029535.003.0006
Subject:
Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology

This chapter addresses the problem in linguistic reconstruction that is significant for work on lexical diffusion in Mesoamerica as well as research on the intercultural interaction that probably ... More


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