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Detection of direction of contrast

L. Weiskrantz

in Blindsight: A Case Study and Implications

Published in print:
1990
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198521921
eISBN:
9780191706226
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198521921.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

D. B. acknowledged having some sort of impression or feeling when a stimulus was abruptly presented, but failed to ascribe any sense of ‘brightness’ to the experience. This led to the question of ... More


Theories of Lightness

Alan Gilchrist

in Seeing Black and White

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195187168
eISBN:
9780199786725
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195187168.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

This chapter outlines and critiques all the main theories of lightness, laying out the strengths and weaknesses of each. These include the past experience theories, contrast theories, brightness ... More


Light and the Optical Environment

Thomas W. Cronin, Sönke Johnsen, N. Justin Marshall, and Eric J. Warrant

in Visual Ecology

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691151847
eISBN:
9781400853021
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691151847.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter explains how humans, and nearly all animals on Earth, witness astonishing variation in their optical environment. Brightness changes by many orders of magnitude each day, and colors also ... More


An Anchoring Model of Errors

Alan Gilchrist

in Seeing Black and White

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195187168
eISBN:
9780199786725
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195187168.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

This chapter offers a specific error-driven theory of lightness framed in terms of the rules of anchoring. The lightness model described in Gilchrist et al. (1999) is presented in more detail in this ... More


Concluding Thoughts

Alan Gilchrist

in Seeing Black and White

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195187168
eISBN:
9780199786725
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195187168.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

This chapter draws conclusions from the current evidence regarding lightness perception. It is argued that the twin assumptions of raw sensations and their cognitive interpretation have undermined ... More


Introduction

Alan Gilchrist

in Seeing Black and White

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195187168
eISBN:
9780199786725
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195187168.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

Color perception requires a distinction between both chromatic colors and achromatic colors. These are funny terms: the first is redundant, the second is an oxymoron — colored colors and non-colored ... More


The Contrast Period

Alan Gilchrist

in Seeing Black and White

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195187168
eISBN:
9780199786725
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195187168.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

Chronologically the fourth period of lightness theory, also known as the contrast period, extended from World War II until the end of the 1960s. Ideologically, however, it began at the end of the ... More


Computational Models

Alan Gilchrist

in Seeing Black and White

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195187168
eISBN:
9780199786725
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195187168.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

The computer revolution produced two quite different streams of work on lightness perception. These streams are represented by decomposition models and brightness models, respectively. Perhaps the ... More


Surface Completion: Psychophysical and Neurophysiological Studies of Brightness

Andrew F. Rossi and Michael A. Paradiso

in Filling-In: From Perceptual Completion to Cortical Reorganization

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195140132
eISBN:
9780199865307
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195140132.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter presents data from psychophysical and physiological experiments that explored brightness perception and the possible involvement of filling-in. It begins with a discussion of ... More


Searching for the Neural Mechanism of Color Filling-In

Rüdiger von der Heydt, Howard S. Friedman, and Hong Zhou

in Filling-In: From Perceptual Completion to Cortical Reorganization

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195140132
eISBN:
9780199865307
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195140132.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter discusses a perceptual phenomenon in which visual stimuli seem to assume the color and brightness of the surrounding region and thereby vanish from perception. It begins by reviewing the ... More


Effects of Modal versus Amodal Completion Upon Visual Attention: A Function for Filling-In?

Greg Davis and Jon Driver

in Filling-In: From Perceptual Completion to Cortical Reorganization

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195140132
eISBN:
9780199865307
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195140132.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter focuses on the possible functional differences between modal and amodal completion in relation to visual attention. A review of visual-search experiments suggests that both modal and ... More


Fundamentals of Synchrotron Radiation Emission

James A. Clarke

in The Science and Technology of Undulators and Wigglers

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198508557
eISBN:
9780191708770
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198508557.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter derives the general solution for the electric and magnetic fields emitted by an accelerated relativistic charged particle using Maxwell’s equations as the starting point. This general ... More


Synchrotron Radiation Output from Multipole Wigglers

James A. Clarke

in The Science and Technology of Undulators and Wigglers

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198508557
eISBN:
9780191708770
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198508557.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter derives the electron trajectory through an arbitrary insertion device and then examines the case of a multipole wiggler in detail. The output flux and brightness is found, using the ... More


Synchrotron Radiation Output from Undulators

James A. Clarke

in The Science and Technology of Undulators and Wigglers

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198508557
eISBN:
9780191708770
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198508557.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter uses simple interference arguments to derive the undulator wavelength equation and then explains why odd harmonics are dominant in such a device. The flux distribution is then found ... More


X-ray sources, optical elements, and detectors

David M. Paganin

in Coherent X-Ray Optics

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198567288
eISBN:
9780191717963
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567288.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter sequentially considers the three features present in almost all experiments in coherent X-ray optics: X-ray sources, X-ray optical elements, and X-ray detectors. Regarding sources, the ... More


Objective and Subjective Sides of Perception

Alan Gilchrist

in Visual Experience: Sensation, Cognition, and Constancy

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199597277
eISBN:
9780191741883
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199597277.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Vision

Every perceptual experience has an objective and a subjective side. We see object size, independent of distance, but we also see that distant objects project smaller images. Early modern conceptions ... More


Recognition-by-Components: A Bird’s Eye View

Edward A. Wasserman and Irving Biederman

in How Animals See the World: Comparative Behavior, Biology, and Evolution of Vision

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195334654
eISBN:
9780199933167
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195334654.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter reviews research that has pursued the comparative psychology of visual object perception by investigating the applicability to pigeons of Biederman's theory of object recognition: ... More


Let there be light

John Orton

in The Story of Semiconductors

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199559107
eISBN:
9780191712975
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199559107.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

Red light emitting p-n diodes (LEDs) became prominent in the 1960s based on GaAsP and GaP, finding application in alpha-numeric displays and as indicator lamps. Much improved brightness became ... More


ELECTRON SOURCES AND DETECTORS

JOHN C. H. SPENCE

in High-Resolution Electron Microscopy

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199552757
eISBN:
9780191708664
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199552757.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter discusses and compares the three most common electron sources used in electron microscopy. Brightness, energy spread, and coherence properties are given for field emitters, LaB6, and ... More


Aerial perspectives

Helen E. Ross and Cornelis Plug

in The Mystery of The Moon Illusion: Exploring Size Perception

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198508625
eISBN:
9780191584893
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198508625.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

The previous chapter described how the horizon enlargement associated with the moon illusion was erroneously ascribed to atmospheric refraction, an explanation eventually abandoned by scientists. If ... More


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