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Chemical Biomarkers in Aquatic Ecosystems

Thomas S. Bianchi and Elizabeth A. Canuel

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691134147
eISBN:
9781400839100
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691134147.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This textbook provides a unique and thorough look at the application of chemical biomarkers to aquatic ecosystems. Defining a chemical biomarker as a compound that can be linked to particular sources ... More


Principles of Exposure Measurement in Epidemiology: Collecting, Evaluating, and Improving Measures of Disease Risk Factors

Emily White, Bruce K. Armstrong, and Rodolfo Saracci

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198509851
eISBN:
9780191723827
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198509851.001.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The accurate measurement of exposure to putative causes of disease is essential to the validity of epidemiologic research. This book covers general principles and methods that can be applied to ... More


Isoprenoid Lipids: Steroids, Hopanoids, and Triterpenoids

Thomas S. Bianchi and Elizabeth A. Canuel

in Chemical Biomarkers in Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691134147
eISBN:
9781400839100
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691134147.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter discusses several classes of cyclic isoprenoids and their respective derivatives, which have proven to be important biomarkers that can be used to estimate algal and vascular plant ... More


Lipids: Hydrocarbons

Thomas S. Bianchi and Elizabeth A. Canuel

in Chemical Biomarkers in Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691134147
eISBN:
9781400839100
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691134147.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter examines hydrocarbons present in the environment and derived from natural and anthropogenic sources. Since the industrial revolution, the abundance of hydrocarbons derived from ... More


Photosynthetic Pigments: Chlorophylls, Carotenoids, and Phycobilins

Thomas S. Bianchi and Elizabeth A. Canuel

in Chemical Biomarkers in Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691134147
eISBN:
9781400839100
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691134147.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter examines the primary photosynthetic pigments used in absorbing photosynthetically active radiation, which include chlorophylls, carotenoids, and phycobilins—with chlorophyll representing ... More


Lignins, Cutins, and Suberins

Thomas S. Bianchi and Elizabeth A. Canuel

in Chemical Biomarkers in Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691134147
eISBN:
9781400839100
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691134147.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter examines lignin, which has proven to be a useful chemical biomarker for tracing vascular-plant inputs to aquatic systems. Cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin generally make up >75% of ... More


Paths to Alzheimer Prevention

Margaret Lock

in The Alzheimer Conundrum: Entanglements of Dementia and Aging

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691149783
eISBN:
9781400848461
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691149783.003.0004
Subject:
Anthropology, Social and Cultural Anthropology

This chapter looks at the adoption in the 1980s of the clinical diagnosis known as “mild cognitive impairment” (MCI). Formal recognition of MCI, the value of which continues to be debated in some ... More


Embodied Risk Made Visible

Margaret Lock

in The Alzheimer Conundrum: Entanglements of Dementia and Aging

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691149783
eISBN:
9781400848461
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691149783.003.0005
Subject:
Anthropology, Social and Cultural Anthropology

This chapter illustrates an account of the shift, commencing in the late 1980s, to the molecularization of Alzheimer disease (AD), and the attempt to identify significant bodily changes as much as 20 ... More


Metabolic Synthesis

Thomas S. Bianchi and Elizabeth A. Canuel

in Chemical Biomarkers in Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691134147
eISBN:
9781400839100
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691134147.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter provides a general background on the synthesis of chemical biomarkers and their association with key metabolic pathways in organisms, as related to differences in cellular structure and ... More


Chemical Biomarker Applications to Ecology and Paleoecology

Thomas S. Bianchi and Elizabeth A. Canuel

in Chemical Biomarkers in Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691134147
eISBN:
9781400839100
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691134147.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter provides a brief historical account of the success and limitations of using chemical biomarkers in aquatic ecosystems. It also introduces the general concepts of chemical biomarkers as ... More


Analytical Chemical Methods and Instrumentation

Thomas S. Bianchi and Elizabeth A. Canuel

in Chemical Biomarkers in Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691134147
eISBN:
9781400839100
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691134147.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter provides a background on the important role technology has played in the study of chemical biomarkers, and the many advances in the field that have resulted from the development of new ... More


Nucleic Acids and Molecular Tools

Thomas S. Bianchi and Elizabeth A. Canuel

in Chemical Biomarkers in Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691134147
eISBN:
9781400839100
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691134147.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter examines nucleic acids, polymers of RNA and DNA, which act as the templates for protein synthesis. High levels of nucleic acids in microbes contribute to their elevated nitrogen and ... More


Lipids: Fatty Acids

Thomas S. Bianchi and Elizabeth A. Canuel

in Chemical Biomarkers in Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691134147
eISBN:
9781400839100
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691134147.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter discusses fatty acids, the building blocks of lipids, which represent a significant fraction of the total lipid pool in aquatic organisms. It explores how chain length and levels of ... More


Lipids: Alkenones, Polar Lipids, and Ether Lipids

Thomas S. Bianchi and Elizabeth A. Canuel

in Chemical Biomarkers in Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691134147
eISBN:
9781400839100
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691134147.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter focuses on several classes of polar lipids, including alkenones, which are di-, tri-, and tetra-unsaturated long-chain ketones. These compounds are produced by a restricted number of ... More


Anthropogenic Markers

Thomas S. Bianchi and Elizabeth A. Canuel

in Chemical Biomarkers in Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691134147
eISBN:
9781400839100
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691134147.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter examines the application of anthropogenic compounds as biomarkers. Since World War II, human activities have introduced a wide array of compounds into the environment, including ... More


Conducting Longitudinal Studies

Jorge Delva, Paula Allen-Meares, and Sandra L. Momper

in Cross-Cultural Research

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195382501
eISBN:
9780199777419
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195382501.003.0004
Subject:
Social Work, Research and Evaluation

In this chapter we present two examples of longitudinal studies. Both studies utilize an etic–emic approach and both are underway in urban, cosmopolitan areas. In both studies the etic approach stems ... More


Brain Imaging in the Evaluation of Putative Alzheimer’s Disease-Slowing, Risk-Reducing and Prevention Therapies

Eric M. Reiman and Jessica B. S. Langbaum

in Imaging the Aging Brain

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195328875
eISBN:
9780199864836
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195328875.003.0020
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques, Development

This chapter describes the emerging roles of brain imaging and other biomarker measurements of Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression and pathology in the evaluation of putative AD-slowing, ... More


Personalized Medicine for Schizophrenia

Jacob S. Ballon, Ragy R. Girgis, and Jeffrey A. Lieberman

in Integrative Neuroscience and Personalized Medicine

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195393804
eISBN:
9780199863495
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195393804.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter discusses the potential for personalized medicine as it applies to schizophrenia, one of the most severe mental disorders. The first half of this chapter will address the genetics of ... More


The Role of Neuroimaging Biomarkers in Personalized Medicine for Neurodegenerative and Psychiatric Disorders

Ellen M. Migo, Steve C.R. Williams, William R. Crum, Matthew J. Kempton, and Ulrich Ettinger

in Integrative Neuroscience and Personalized Medicine

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195393804
eISBN:
9780199863495
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195393804.003.0008
Subject:
Neuroscience, Disorders of the Nervous System

There is a clear need for biomarkers in neuro-degenerative and psychiatric disorders for both early and differential diagnosis, personalized prediction of treatment response, and in drug discovery. ... More


Autonomic Nervous System Markers for Psychophysiological, Anxiety, and Physical Disorders

Richard Gevirtz

in Integrative Neuroscience and Personalized Medicine

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195393804
eISBN:
9780199863495
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195393804.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter explores the use of autonomic nervous system (ANS) measures as potential biomarkers for medically unexplained disorders. It is proposed that these disorders are better classified and ... More


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