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Heterotrophic microbial processes in polar lakes

John E. Hobbie and Johanna Laybourn-Parry

in Polar Lakes and Rivers: Limnology of Arctic and Antarctic Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199213887
eISBN:
9780191707506
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213887.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Aquatic Biology

This chapter examines the activities of heterotrophic microbes (bacteria, flagellates, and ciliated protozoans) in Antarctic continental lakes and Arctic lakes and ponds (Europe, Asia, North America, ... More


Microbial biodiversity and biogeography

David A. Pearce and Pierre E. Galand

in Polar Lakes and Rivers: Limnology of Arctic and Antarctic Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199213887
eISBN:
9780191707506
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213887.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Aquatic Biology

This chapter summarizes the major groups of microorganisms found in high latitude aquatic ecosystems and the methodological approaches used to study their biodiversity. The underlying mechanisms that ... More


Trophic Interactions in Subtidal Rocky Reefs on the West Coast of South Africa

George M. Branch

in Food Webs and the Dynamics of Marine Reefs

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195319958
eISBN:
9780199869596
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195319958.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

The chapter summarizes the ecology of the subtidal reefs of South Africa. Discussions include the role of wind, productivity, and oceanographic conditions, the important role of currents and the ... More


SLAKING OUR THIRST: The Cholera Bacteria and Its Toxic Viruses

Jaap Goudsmit

in Viral Fitness: The Next SARS and West Nile in the Making

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195130348
eISBN:
9780199790166
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195130348.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Microbiology

This chapter discusses the cholera bacterium, Vibrio cholerae and its toxic viruses. The cholera bacterium causes disease and death when the infection results in a continual watery diarrhea that ... More


Community ecology meets epidemiology: the case of Lyme disease

Richard Ostfeld, Felicia Keesing, and Katheleen Lo Giudice

in Disease Ecology: Community structure and pathogen dynamics

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198567080
eISBN:
9780191717871
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567080.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

A single case of Lyme disease involves at least six species: the human patient, the bacterial pathogen, the tick vector, and a vertebrate host for each of the three blood-feeding life stages of the ... More


Molecular Evolution and Microbial Phylogeny

Jan Sapp

in Genesis: The Evolution of Biology

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195156195
eISBN:
9780199790340
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195156195.003.0018
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter discusses the development of methods by biologists for tracing life back billions of years to investigate early microbial evolution and create a universal phylogeny. These explorations ... More


Microbial, Microalgal, and Planktonic Reef Life

Charles R. C. Sheppard, Simon K. Davy, and Graham M. Pilling

in The Biology of Coral Reefs

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198566359
eISBN:
9780191713934
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198566359.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology, Aquatic Biology

Microbes, including bacteria, archaea, viruses, fungi, protozoans and microalgae, are the most abundant and arguably the most important members of coral reef communities. They occur in the water ... More


Granular physics of biological objects

Igor S. Aranson and Lev S. Tsimring

in Granular Patterns

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199534418
eISBN:
9780191714665
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199534418.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter presents an overview of patterns emerging in the various biological systems. Complex patterns in biological systems can be caused by a variety of mechanisms, from “simple” physical ... More


The Fate of Intracellular Metal Ions in Microbes

Slade A. Loutet, Anson C. K. Chan, Marek J. Kobylarz, Meghan M. Verstraete, Stephanie Pfaffen, Bin Ye, Angel L. Arrieta, and Michael E. P. Murphy

in Trace Metals and Infectious Diseases

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262029193
eISBN:
9780262327619
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029193.003.0004
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

Metals are essential for all microorganisms; they are required as cofactors of enzymes that mediate metabolic processes which are indispensable for cellular energy production and growth. Some metals, ... More


The Biological Basics of Infectious Disease

Margaret P. Battin, Leslie P. Francis, Jay A. Jacobson, and Charles B. Smith

in The Patient as Victim and Vector: Ethics and Infectious Disease

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195335842
eISBN:
9780199868926
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195335842.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, General

Infectious diseases, although they vary substantially in their manifestations and causes, share certain common features that make them distinct and remarkable. These diseases can strike suddenly and ... More


Monocausalists, Multicausalists, and Germ Theory

Irvine Loudon

in The Tragedy of Childbed Fever

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198204992
eISBN:
9780191676444
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198204992.003.0008
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter examines the impact of the discovery of bacteria on English medical authorities' view on puerperal disease during the 19th century. The arrival of germ theory intensified the debate ... More


Escherichia coli

Rowland H. Davis

in The Microbial Models of Molecular Biology: From Genes to Genomes

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195154368
eISBN:
9780199893935
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195154368.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

This chapter focuses on the choice of a model organism, in this case the bacterium Escherichia coli, in the development of molecular genetics. It shows that this choice was made inconspicuously just ... More


The Microbial State: Global Thriving and the Body Politic

Stefanie R. Fishel

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9781517900137
eISBN:
9781452957692
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Minnesota Press
DOI:
10.5749/minnesota/9781517900137.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Environmental Politics

For three centuries the rational and disembodied state has been animated by one of the most powerful metaphors in politics: the body-politic, a claustrophobic and bounded image of the collective, the ... More


Bacterial infections

Andrew Davies and Ilora Finlay

in Oral Care in Advanced Disease

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
November 2011
ISBN:
9780192632432
eISBN:
9780191730375
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192632432.003.0007
Subject:
Palliative Care, Patient Care and End-of-Life Decision Making, Pain Management and Palliative Pharmacology

This chapter discusses bacteria and the infections brought about by these organisms. Two of the most common infections caused by bacteria are dental caries and periodontal disease. Bacteria are also ... More


Control of multiresistant microorganisms

Nizam Damani

in Manual of Infection Prevention and Control

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199698356
eISBN:
9780191732126
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199698356.003.0010
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Microbes, due to their adaptability, have not only survived the selective pressures exerted by the indiscriminate use of antimicrobial agents but have successfully adapted and evolved in to ... More


How Life Began: Evolution's Three Geneses

Alexandre Meinesz

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226519319
eISBN:
9780226519333
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226519333.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The origin of life is a hotly debated topic. The Christian Bible states that God created the heavens and the Earth, all in about seven days roughly six thousand years ago. This episode in Genesis ... More


Introduction: Ramifications and Future Directions

Snait B. Gissis and Eva Jablonka

in Transformations of Lamarckism: From Subtle Fluids to Molecular Biology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262015141
eISBN:
9780262295642
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262015141.003.0034
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter illuminates some biological, philosophical, sociological, and historical issues raised by the Lamarckian problematics. It presents additional points of view that were important for ... More


Prokaryotic Epigenetic Inheritance and Its Role in Evolutionary Genetics

Luisa Hirschbein

in Transformations of Lamarckism: From Subtle Fluids to Molecular Biology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262015141
eISBN:
9780262295642
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262015141.003.0037
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter examines epigenetic inheritance in prokaryotes and its role in evolutionary genetics. It first characterizes epigenetic variations in prokaryotic biology and discusses the mechanisms of ... More


Infectious Agents

Tamar Lasky

in Epidemiologic Principles and Food Safety

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195172638
eISBN:
9780199865727
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195172638.003.02
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Infectious agents causing food-borne illness include bacteria, parasites, viruses, and prions. Pathogens cause illness by producing infection or by producing toxins that cause illness. This chapter ... More


Ecology of Freshwater and Estuarine Wetlands

Darold Batzer (ed.)

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520247772
eISBN:
9780520932890
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520247772.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Designed as a textbook, this volume is an up-to-date survey in ecology of freshwater and estuarine wetlands. Prominent wetland scholars address the physical environment, geomorphology, ... More


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