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Introduction

Joshua S. Bloom

in What Are Gamma-Ray Bursts?

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691145570
eISBN:
9781400837007
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691145570.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This introductory chapter presents the background story on the discovery and research on gamma-ray bursts (GRB). In 1963, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev and U.S. President John F. Kennedy agreed to ... More


The Authors

Romila Thapar

in Time as a Metaphor of History: Early India: The Krishna Bharadwaj Memorial Lecture

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
October 2012
ISBN:
9780195637984
eISBN:
9780199081912
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195637984.003.0004
Subject:
History, Indian History

This chapter focuses on disagreements between astronomers regarding time calculations. One astronomer rejected the unequal length of the four yugas; Āryabhaṭa in the fifth century AD was singled out ... More


Trajectories in Science

Geoffrey Cantor

in Quakers, Jews, and Science: Religious Responses to Modernity and the Sciences in Britain, 1650-1900

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199276684
eISBN:
9780191603389
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199276684.003.0005
Subject:
Religion, History of Christianity

This chapter looks at nine different modes of scientific activity pursued by Quakers and Jews. These range from the wealthy amateur — including several Jews who pursued science in an upper-class, ... More


The Formative Years of Relativity: The History and Meaning of Einstein's Princeton Lectures

Jürgen Renn and Hanoch Gutfreund

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780691174631
eISBN:
9781400888689
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691174631.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

First published in 1922 and based on lectures delivered in May 1921, Albert Einstein's The Meaning of Relativity offered an overview and explanation of the then new and controversial theory of ... More


Habesha Discourse and Johnson’s Rasselas

Wendy Laura Belcher

in Abyssinia's Samuel Johnson: Ethiopian Thought in the Making of an English Author

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199793211
eISBN:
9780199949700
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199793211.003.0008
Subject:
Literature, 18th-century Literature, World Literature

Why is Rasselas so strange? It is the argument of this chapter that this is so at least partly because of Samuel Johnson’s strange relationship with the literature about the Habesha. While, of ... More


Making Time: Astronomical Time Measurement in Tokugawa Japan

Yulia Frumer

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780226516448
eISBN:
9780226524719
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226524719.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

We tend to think of time as an abstract and universal phenomenon that is independent of human activity. Making Time challenges this view, claiming that humans construct their own time, including the ... More


The Office of Mathematics: foundation and staff

Catherine Jami

in The Emperor's New Mathematics: Western Learning and Imperial Authority During the Kangxi Reign (1662-1722)

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199601400
eISBN:
9780191729218
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199601400.003.0013
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter discusses the creation, in 1713, of an Office of Mathematics where a group of selected young scholars, both Chinese and Bannermen, started to work on the treatises commissioned by the ... More


Unlocking the gates

Grant Hayter-Menzies

in The Empress and Mrs. Conger: The Uncommon Friendship of Two Women and Two Worlds

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9789888083008
eISBN:
9789882207554
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:
10.5790/hongkong/9789888083008.003.0019
Subject:
History, Asian History

This chapter describes Sarah Conger's fascination with the Imperial Observatory. The Imperial Observatory was built on the southeast corner of the old city wall in 1296 during the reign of Khublai ... More


The Iberian Peninsula: Land of Astral Magic

Michael A. Ryan

in A Kingdom of Stargazers: Astrology and Authority in the Late Medieval Crown of Aragon

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801449840
eISBN:
9780801463150
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801449840.003.0004
Subject:
History, European Medieval History

This chapter considers a larger medieval perception of the Iberian Peninsula: that to other medieval Europeans, Spain was a shadowy land of magic. A supposedly nefarious region no good Christian ... More


Edmond Halley

Allan Chapman

in Oxford Figures: Eight Centuries of the Mathematical Sciences

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199681976
eISBN:
9780191761737
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199681976.003.0007
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

In this chapter we describe Edmond Halley’s undergraduate excursion to map the southern stars, and the establishment of his early career. We also discuss his relationship to Flamsteed, Hooke, and ... More


Time is of the Essence

David Clarke

in Reflections on the Astronomy of Glasgow: A story of some 500 years

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780748678891
eISBN:
9780748689286
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748678891.003.0008
Subject:
Society and Culture, Scottish Studies

Despite the 1841 remit to supply ‘time’ to the Clyde, the University Observatory only provided services by weekly carrying a chronometer to the City to regulate the Exchange clock and to provide ... More


Discovering the Solar System

John Chambers and Jacqueline Mitton

in From Dust to Life: The Origin and Evolution of Our Solar System

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780691175706
eISBN:
9781400885565
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691175706.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter illustrates how the solar system turned out to be much larger than previously imagined. In the 2nd century AD, Greek astronomer Claudius Ptolemy, working in the Egyptian city of ... More


What Happened to the Asteroid Belt?

John Chambers and Jacqueline Mitton

in From Dust to Life: The Origin and Evolution of Our Solar System

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780691175706
eISBN:
9781400885565
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691175706.003.0013
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter discusses the nature and composition of the asteroid belt. Although little is known about most of the individual members of the asteroid belt, astronomers have a good idea how much ... More


Epilogue: Paradigms, Problems, and Predictions

John Chambers and Jacqueline Mitton

in From Dust to Life: The Origin and Evolution of Our Solar System

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780691175706
eISBN:
9781400885565
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691175706.003.0015
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This concluding chapter talks about how astronomers and space agencies in dozens of countries are helping to see the solar system as never before, transforming points of light into real worlds, and ... More


Introduction

Yulia Frumer

in Making Time: Astronomical Time Measurement in Tokugawa Japan

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780226516448
eISBN:
9780226524719
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226524719.003.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

How do people form concepts of time, and how do they decide which timekeeping practices to use? The Introduction establishes that Japan—and particularly Japan during the Tokugawa period—offers an ... More


Vermeer and Van Leeuwenhoek: Luck, random chance, risk, and contingencies in evolution

Alexandre Meinesz

in How Life Began: Evolution's Three Geneses

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226519319
eISBN:
9780226519333
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226519333.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Johannes Vermeer, a painter widely admired today but poorly known in his own time, was born in 1632 in Delft. In this environment Vermeer created a new style of Dutch painting. His depictions of the ... More


Replication or Monopoly?: The Medicean Stars between Invention and Discovery

in Galileo's Instruments of Credit: Telescopes, Images, Secrecy

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226045610
eISBN:
9780226045634
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226045634.003.0003
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter presents an account of the production and reception of Galileo's telescopic observations of 1609–10 that focuses on the relationship between credit and disclosure. The historiography on ... More


Introduction

in On Sunspots

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226707150
eISBN:
9780226707174
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226707174.003.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This introduction discusses the theme of this volume which is about the conflict between Galileo and Christoph Scheiner on the nature and location of sunspots. It explains that the conflict had ... More


Turning the telescope to the Sun: Thomas Harriot and Johannes and David Fabricius

in On Sunspots

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226707150
eISBN:
9780226707174
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226707174.003.0003
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter focuses on telescopic sunspot observations in Europe. It suggests that the scientific study of spots on the Sun by European astronomers began in 1611 after the invention of the ... More


Representing Scientific Data: Cartographic Inscription and Visual Authority

in Geographies of Mars: Seeing and Knowing the Red Planet

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226470788
eISBN:
9780226470795
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226470795.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter explores the role of cartographic representation in establishing early views of the Martian landscape as irrigated and inhabited. It identifies a series of transitions in generally ... More


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