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Alan Turing's Automatic Computing Engine: The Master Codebreaker's Struggle to build the Modern Computer

B. Jack Copeland (ed.)

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198565932
eISBN:
9780191714016
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565932.001.0001
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

The mathematical genius Alan Turing (1912-1954) was one of the greatest scientists and thinkers of the 20th century. Now well known for his crucial wartime role in breaking the ENIGMA code, he was ... More


Turing and the computer

B. Jack Copeland and Diane Proudfoot

in Alan Turing's Automatic Computing Engine: The Master Codebreaker's Struggle to build the Modern Computer

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198565932
eISBN:
9780191714016
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565932.003.0006
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter discusses Turing's contributions to the field of computing. Topics covered include the Turing machine, cryptanalytic machines, the ACE and the EDVAC, the Manchester computer, artificial ... More


Nutrient cycling as an emergent property

David M. Wilkinson

in Fundamental Processes in Ecology: An earth systems approach

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198568469
eISBN:
9780191717611
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568469.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Arguments based on both in vitro and in silico models suggest that biogeochemical cycles will readily evolve on planets with life, along with many of the putative fundamental processes described in ... More


BOTTOM‐UP AND DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACHES

Wendell Wallach and Colin Allen

in Moral Machines: Teaching Robots Right from Wrong

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195374049
eISBN:
9780199871889
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195374049.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter surveys bottom‐up approaches to the development of artificial moral agents. These approaches apply methods from machine learning, Kohlberg's theory of moral development, and techniques ... More


Artificial Chemistries

Wolfgang Banzhaf and Lidia Yamamoto

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780262029438
eISBN:
9780262329460
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029438.001.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

The field of Artificial Life (ALife) is now firmly established in the scientific world, but it has yet to achieve one of its original goals: an understanding of the emergence of life on Earth. The ... More


Digital Evolution and the Emergence of Complexity

John Johnston

in The Allure of Machinic Life: Cybernetics, Artificial Life, and the New AI

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262101264
eISBN:
9780262276351
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262101264.003.0006
Subject:
Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence

This chapter charts the history of artificial life (ALife) after Langton in relation to theories of evolution, emergence, and complex adaptive systems by examining a series of experiments carried out ... More


Open Evolution and Human Agency: The Pragmatics of Upstream Ethics in the Design of Artificial Life

George Khushf

in The Ethics of Protocells: Moral and Social Implications of Creating Life in the Laboratory

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262012621
eISBN:
9780262255301
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262012621.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Bioethics

This chapter argues that ethical reflection must be an integral part of the development of protocell science and technology. It presents a representative example of a body of research in artificial ... More


An Archaeology of Artificial Life, Underwater

Stefan Helmreich

in Genesis Redux: Essays in the History and Philosophy of Artificial Life

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226720807
eISBN:
9780226720838
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226720838.003.0015
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter discusses how current designers of artificial creatures place their creations in a medium in order to make them seem lifelike, and provides a commentary on the practice of finding ... More


The Allure of Machinic Life: Cybernetics, Artificial Life, and the New AI

John Johnston

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262101264
eISBN:
9780262276351
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262101264.001.0001
Subject:
Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence

This book examines new forms of nascent life that emerge through technical interactions within human-constructed environments—“machinic life”—in the sciences of cybernetics, artificial life, and ... More


Connectionism in an artificial life perspective: simulating motor, cognitive, and language development

Matthew Schlesinger and Domenico Parisi

in Neuroconstructivism Volume Two: Perspectives and Prospects

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198529934
eISBN:
9780191689727
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529934.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter emphasises that adaptation can occur at a developmental timescale — within the lifetime of an individual — but also across individuals (phylogeny). To explore these interactions, it uses ... More


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