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Prescribing under Pressure: Parent-Physician Conversations and Antibiotics

Tanya Stivers

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195311150
eISBN:
9780199870837
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195311150.001.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

Antibiotics will soon no longer be able to cure common illnesses such as strep throat, sinusitis, and middle ear infections as they have done previously. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are increasing ... More


The ecology and evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria

Carl T. Bergstrom and Michael Feldgarden

in Evolution in Health and Disease

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780199207466
eISBN:
9780191728167
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199207466.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Bacteria evolve resistance to antibiotics with near certainty after several years of widespread use. Resistance can evolve via several genetic mechanisms and spread through and between species via ... More


The Baby with the Baboon Heart: Why Evolution Still Matters

Norman A. Johnson

in Darwinian Detectives: Revealing the Natural History of Genes and Genomes

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195306750
eISBN:
9780199790203
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195306750.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The H5N1 avian flu virus has spread to fowl across several continents and has killed hundreds of people. Fortunately, this flu is not easily transmitted to humans yet; if it were, a deadly pandemic ... More


The Miracle Drug: The Context of Modern Antibiotic Usage

Tanya Stivers

in Prescribing under Pressure: Parent-Physician Conversations and Antibiotics

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195311150
eISBN:
9780199870837
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195311150.003.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

This chapter begins with a discussion of the history of antibiotics. It then discusses the determinants of bacterial resistance and bacterial resistance as a global problem. The chapter then ... More


Natural Products and the Pharmaceutical Industry

Richard Firn

in Nature's Chemicals: The Natural Products that shaped our world

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199566839
eISBN:
9780191721700
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199566839.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

Natural Products have been exploited by humans as a means of treating illness, ailments and infections throughout recorded human history. Worldwide, NPs are still of major importance in health care. ... More


Antimicrobial Resistance

Margaret P. Battin, Leslie P. Francis, Jay A. Jacobson, and Charles B. Smith

in The Patient as Victim and Vector: Ethics and Infectious Disease

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195335842
eISBN:
9780199868926
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195335842.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, General

Antimicrobial resistance is growing at an alarming rate: reports of extensive multiple-drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB and MDR-TB) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are but ... More


The Fate of Intracellular Metal Ions in Microbes

Slade A. Loutet, Anson C. K. Chan, Marek J. Kobylarz, Meghan M. Verstraete, Stephanie Pfaffen, Bin Ye, Angel L. Arrieta, and Michael E. P. Murphy

in Trace Metals and Infectious Diseases

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262029193
eISBN:
9780262327619
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029193.003.0004
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

Metals are essential for all microorganisms; they are required as cofactors of enzymes that mediate metabolic processes which are indispensable for cellular energy production and growth. Some metals, ... More


Evolution in Health and Disease

Stephen C. Stearns and Jacob C. Koella (eds)

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780199207466
eISBN:
9780191728167
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199207466.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

It is now increasingly acknowledged that an evolutionary perspective can give us important new insights into issues central to medical research and practice. This fully revised and updated edition, ... More


Combating Antibiotic Resistance Through the Health Impact Fund

Kevin Outterson, Thomas Pogge, and Aidan Hollis

in The Globalization of Health Care: Legal and Ethical Issues

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199917907
eISBN:
9780199332878
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199917907.003.0018
Subject:
Law, Medical Law

This chapter illustrates how antibiotic resistance distorts markets for innovative antibiotics in unusual and counterintuitive ways. It also clarifies how proposals to produce a Health Impact Fund ... More


Special Therapeutic Issues: Hydration, Nutrition, and Antibiotics in End-of-Life Care

James L. Hallenbeck

in Palliative Care Perspectives

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2011
ISBN:
9780195165784
eISBN:
9780199999897
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195165784.003.0006
Subject:
Palliative Care, Patient Care and End-of-Life Decision Making, Pain Management and Palliative Pharmacology

This chapter discusses special therapeutic issues in end-of-life care, particularly hydration, nutrition, and antibiotics. Hydration and nutrition are the means of accomplishing the two overt goals ... More


‘Considered to be without medical justification’: Science, Medicine, and Committees, 1945–1961

James H. Mills

in Cannabis Nation: Control and Consumption in Britain, 1928-2008

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199283422
eISBN:
9780191746161
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199283422.003.0005
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History, Cultural History

While Britain's colonial past began to shape the UK's experience of cannabis in these years, other overseas contexts were similarly important and Chapter 5 considers them. There was a flurry of ... More


Control of multiresistant microorganisms

Nizam Damani

in Manual of Infection Prevention and Control

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199698356
eISBN:
9780191732126
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199698356.003.0010
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Microbes, due to their adaptability, have not only survived the selective pressures exerted by the indiscriminate use of antimicrobial agents but have successfully adapted and evolved in to ... More


Overt Forms of Negotiation

Tanya Stivers

in Prescribing under Pressure: Parent-Physician Conversations and Antibiotics

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195311150
eISBN:
9780199870837
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195311150.003.0006
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

This chapter examines four main ways that parents overtly lobby for antibiotics and shows evidence that parents and physicians alike treat antibiotics as under negotiation. Unlike the other practices ... More


Conclusion

Tanya Stivers

in Prescribing under Pressure: Parent-Physician Conversations and Antibiotics

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195311150
eISBN:
9780199870837
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195311150.003.0008
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

This chapter begins with a summary of discussions in the preceding chapters. It concludes by speculating about the issues underlying the problems of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing, particularly ... More


Dreams of Greatness: The Birth of the Pharmaceutical Industry

Michael Kinch

in Prescription for Change: The Looming Crisis in Drug Development

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9781469630625
eISBN:
9781469630649
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469630625.003.0004
Subject:
Business and Management, Innovation

This chapter details the birth of the pharmaceutical industry, whose roots trace back more than six millennia. While modern society struggles with opiate addiction, the problem is centuries old and ... More


Three Views of a Train Wreck

Michael Kinch

in Prescription for Change: The Looming Crisis in Drug Development

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9781469630625
eISBN:
9781469630649
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469630625.003.0012
Subject:
Business and Management, Innovation

Despite and arguably because of the enormous public health benefits arising from the introduction of new medicines, the industry is in the midst of crisis. We detail in this chapter the decline in ... More


Control of Infectious Diseases: A Twentieth-Century Public Health Achievement

Alexandra M. Levitt, D. Peter Drotman, and Stephen Ostroff

in Silent Victories: The History and Practice of Public Health in Twentieth Century America

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195150698
eISBN:
9780199865185
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195150698.003.01
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The marked decline in infectious-disease-associated mortality that took place in the United States during the first half of the 20th century contributed to the sharp drop in infant and child ... More


A Brief Romance with Magic Bullets: René Dubos at the Dawn of the Antibiotic Era

Jill E. Cooper

in Silent Victories: The History and Practice of Public Health in Twentieth Century America

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195150698
eISBN:
9780199865185
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195150698.003.03
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

In 1939, René Dubos announced his discovery of tyrothricin, the first clinically useful antibiotic. Convinced of the power and efficiency of chemotherapeutic wonder drugs, Dubos abandoned his ... More


Host–pathogen coevolution

Robert L. Perlman

in Evolution and Medicine

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199661718
eISBN:
9780191774720
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199661718.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Humans are home to a myriad of microorganisms that are known collectively as the human microbiome. Our bodies may also become infected by disease-causing organisms, or pathogens. Pathogens have ... More


The public health response to the anthrax epidemic

Philip S. Brachman

in Terrorism and Public Health: A balanced approach to strengthening systems and protecting people

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195325256
eISBN:
9780199864409
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195325256.003.0006
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter describes the public health response to the anthrax epidemic in 2001. It discusses historical background, epidemiology of anthrax, terrorist use of anthrax, and evaluation of the public ... More


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