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The Chemical Bond in Inorganic Chemistry: The Bond Valence Model

I. David Brown

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199298815
eISBN:
9780191708879
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199298815.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

The bond valence model, which is derived from the ionic model, is expressed through a number of rules and equations that determines which acid-base bond structures can exist. Chief among these rules ... More


Diffusion MRI in Epilepsy

Rajkumar Munian Govindan and Harry T. Chugani

in Neuroimaging in Epilepsy

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195342765
eISBN:
9780199863617
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195342765.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, Disorders of the Nervous System

Diffusion MRI facilitates the measurement of water diffusion in specific spatial directions and is highly sensitive to microstructural changes in neural tissue. This chapter provides an overview of ... More


Molecular Nanomagnets

Dante Gatteschi, Roberta Sessoli, and Jacques Villain

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198567530
eISBN:
9780191718298
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567530.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Nanomagnetism is a rapidly expanding area of research in nanoscience, opening perspectives of novel applications. Magnetic molecules are at the very bottom of the possible size of nanomagnets, and ... More


ION TRANSPORT IN SUPERFLUID 3HE

A.F. Borghesani

in Ions and electrons in liquid helium

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199213603
eISBN:
9780191707421
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213603.003.0024
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

For T < 2.73 mK, liquid 3He becomes superfluid because of the formation of atomic Cooper pairs. The Pauli exclusion principle keeps atoms at a distance from each other so that the pair has non ... More


LASER-INDUCED DEFORMATION OF THIN FILMS

Nasr M. Ghoniem and Daniel D. Walgraef

in Instabilities and Self-Organization in Materials: Volume I: Fundamentals of Nanoscience, Volume II: Applications in Materials Design and Nanotechnology

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199298686
eISBN:
9780191720222
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199298686.003.0016
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter presents the theory of laser-induced deformation and patterning of irradiated surfaces. Topics discussed include laser irradiation and thin film deformation, laser-induced temperature ... More


EMERGING TRENDS IN MOLECULAR NANOMAGNETISM

Dante Gatteschi, Roberta Sessoli, and Jacques Villain

in Molecular Nanomagnets

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198567530
eISBN:
9780191718298
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567530.003.0015
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter deals with a few emerging areas, such as the idea of antiferromagnetic rings comprising an odd number of metal ions, which provide exciting examples of spin frustration effects. Another ... More


INTRODUCTION

Dante Gatteschi, Roberta Sessoli, and Jacques Villain

in Molecular Nanomagnets

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198567530
eISBN:
9780191718298
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567530.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter introduces the field of molecular magnetism with a brief overview of the main properties. It takes a historical point of view. Concepts such as magnetic anisotropy, superparamagnetism, ... More


MAGNETIC INTERACTIONS IN MOLECULAR SYSTEMS

Dante Gatteschi, Roberta Sessoli, and Jacques Villain

in Molecular Nanomagnets

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198567530
eISBN:
9780191718298
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567530.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter introduces the fundamental concept of spin Hamiltonian, which is the background theory needed to provide first-hand information on the magnetic properties of individual spins, of pairs, ... More


MAGNETIC TUNNELLING OF AN ISOLATED SPIN

Dante Gatteschi, Roberta Sessoli, and Jacques Villain

in Molecular Nanomagnets

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198567530
eISBN:
9780191718298
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567530.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter introduces the magnetic tunnelling of an isolated spin. The tunnel effect of the magnetization is compared to that of a particle. The symmetry and the selection rules for tunnelling are ... More


The crystalline state and its study

Dennis Sherwood and Jon Cooper

in Crystals, X-rays and Proteins: Comprehensive Protein Crystallography

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199559046
eISBN:
9780191595028
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199559046.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

This chapter provides an introduction to the fundamental states of matter and the phenomenon of anisotropy which is attributable to the ordered solid state. Solids which possess molecular order over ... More


Acoustic Microscopy: Second Edition

Andrew Briggs and Oleg Kolosov

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199232734
eISBN:
9780191716355
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199232734.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Acoustic microscopy enables you to image and measure the elastic properties of materials with the resolution of a good microscope. By using frequencies in the microwave range, it is possible to make ... More


The expanding universe and thermal relics

Ta-Pei Cheng

in Relativity, Gravitation and Cosmology: A Basic Introduction

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199573639
eISBN:
9780191722448
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199573639.003.0010
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

The dynamics of a changing universe are determined by Friedmann equations, which have simple quasi-Newtonian interpretations. The universe began hot and dense (the big bang), and thereafter expanded ... More


Inflation and the accelerating universe

Ta-Pei Cheng

in Relativity, Gravitation and Cosmology: A Basic Introduction

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199573639
eISBN:
9780191722448
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199573639.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Einstein introduced the cosmological constant in his field equation so as to obtain a static universe solution. This constant energy density corresponds to a negative pressure, giving rise to a ... More


Experimental elastic microanalysis

G. A. D. Briggs and O. V. Kolosov

in Acoustic Microscopy: Second Edition

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199232734
eISBN:
9780191716355
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199232734.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

In principle it is possible to reconstruct the reflectance function of a surface from V(z) data. This requires either that V(z) should be measured as a complex‐valued function, or that phase ... More


Simple Models of Magnetism

Ralph Skomski

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198570752
eISBN:
9780191718816
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570752.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

For hundreds of years, models of magnetism have been pivotal in the understanding and advancement of science and technology, from the Earth's interpretation as a magnetic dipole to quantum mechanics, ... More


Anisotropy

G. A. D. Briggs and O. V. Kolosov

in Acoustic Microscopy: Second Edition

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199232734
eISBN:
9780191716355
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199232734.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Polycrystalline materials give contrast from their grain structure in scanning acoustic micrographs. Bulk wave propagation in anisotropic materials can be calculated from the Christoffel equation. ... More


Modelling Multivariate Counts Varying Continuously in Space *

Alexandra M. Schmidt and Marco A. Rodríguez

in Bayesian Statistics 9

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199694587
eISBN:
9780191731921
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199694587.003.0020
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

We discuss models for multivariate counts observed at fixed spatial locations of a region of interest. Our approach is based on a continuous mixture of independent Poisson distributions. The mixing ... More


Electronically distorted structures

I. David Brown

in The Chemical Bond in Inorganic Chemistry: The Bond Valence Model

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199298815
eISBN:
9780191708879
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199298815.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

Cations with an intrinsic electronic anisotropy tend to form coordination spheres of low symmetry, for which the bond valence rules need to be modified. Main group cations in low valence states may ... More


Tritanopic Colour Constancy Under Daylight Changes?

David H. Foster, Kinjiro Amano, and SÉrgio M. C. Nascimento

in Normal and Defective Colour Vision

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198525301
eISBN:
9780191584947
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525301.003.0022
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter addresses the question of how colour constancy judgments vary under daylight changes. An experiment was performed to estimate the distributional properties of colour-constancy. An ... More


Models of magnetic anisotropy

Ralph Skomski

in Simple Models of Magnetism

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198570752
eISBN:
9780191718816
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570752.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The energy of a magnet depends on the direction of the magnetisation with respect to the crystal axes. This important property, known as the magnetic anisotropy, is the origin of hysteresis and ... More


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