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A Virtue Epistemology: Apt Belief and Reflective Knowledge, Volume I

Ernest Sosa

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199297023
eISBN:
9780191711411
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199297023.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This book presents the six Locke Lectures given in Oxford in May and June of 2005. They appear now very nearly as delivered; they argue for two levels of knowledge — the animal and the reflective — ... More


A Virtue Epistemology

Ernest Sosa

in A Virtue Epistemology: Apt Belief and Reflective Knowledge, Volume I

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199297023
eISBN:
9780191711411
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199297023.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter presents a theory of knowledge as coming in two main varieties: the animal and the reflective. Animal knowledge is apt belief, which hits the mark of truth through the exercise of ... More


Descartes and Virtue Epistemology 1

Ernest Sosa

in Reason, Metaphysics, and Mind: New Essays on the Philosophy of Alvin Plantinga

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199766864
eISBN:
9780199932184
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199766864.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter aims to provide an account of Descartes's project in the Meditations that will fit various passages in the text that are incompatible with earlier interpretations. It emerges that ... More


Human Knowledge, Animal and Reflective

Ernest Sosa

in Reflective Knowledge: Apt Belief and Reflective Knowledge, Volume II

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199217250
eISBN:
9780191696053
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199217250.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter discusses the two varieties of human knowledge: the animal and the reflective. Animal knowledge does not require that the knower have an epistemic perspective on his belief, a ... More


Descartes’s Physiology

Emily R. Grosholz

in Cartesian Method and the Problem of Reduction

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198242505
eISBN:
9780191680502
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198242505.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter treats Descartes's physiology based on the Treatise of Man, claiming that his physiology must be read as a materialist epistemology. ... More


Reflective Knowledge in the Best Circles

Ernest Sosa

in Knowledge, Truth, and Duty: Essays on Epistemic Justification, Responsibility, and Virtue

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195128925
eISBN:
9780199833764
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195128923.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

In response to the well‐known circularity problems posed by Descartes and Moore, recommends externalist virtue epistemology, according to which a true belief amounts to knowledge if its truth is not ... More


Knowledge as Natural Phenomenon

Hilary Kornblith

in Knowledge and its Place in Nature

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199246311
eISBN:
9780191597862
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199246319.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Cognitive ethologists regularly attribute intentional states, such as belief, to non‐human animals. More than this, they regularly talk about such animals having knowledge. It is argued that this ... More


Knowledge

Hilary Kornblith

in On Reflection

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199563005
eISBN:
9780191745263
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199563005.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Mind

It is tempting to hold that a belief which is held unreflectively is not justified, and therefore, cannot constitute knowledge. Justification seems to be something which we achieve, rather than ... More


Epilogue. Animals and Animality:: Reflections on the Art of Jan Harrison

Jay Mcdaniel

in Divinanimality: Animal Theory, Creaturely Theology

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780823263196
eISBN:
9780823266531
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823263196.003.0017
Subject:
Religion, Theology

This epilogue by Jay McDaniel reflects on the animal paintings of Jan Harrison. Harrison's animals are not merely looking at us, McDaniel argues. They are also flowing and causing us to flow. They ... More


Descartes’s Epistemology*

Ernest Sosa

in Scepticism and Perceptual Justification

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
June 2014
ISBN:
9780199658343
eISBN:
9780191760983
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199658343.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Descartes is a virtue epistemologist. Not only does he distinguish centrally between animal and reflective knowledge - in his terms, between cognitio and scientia - but in additionhe conceives of ... More


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