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Animal Spirit in Action

C. U. M. Smith, Eugenio Frixione, Stanley Finger, and William Clower

in The Animal Spirit Doctrine and the Origins of Neurophysiology

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199766499
eISBN:
9780199950263
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199766499.003.0010
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This chapter discusses the changes and elaboration of the animal spirit doctrine by the foremost biomedical thinkers of the 18th century. It reviews Georg Ernst Stahl's animistic ideas, which were ... More


Animal Spirit in an Age of Faith

C. U. M. Smith, Eugenio Frixione, Stanley Finger, and William Clower

in The Animal Spirit Doctrine and the Origins of Neurophysiology

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199766499
eISBN:
9780199950263
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199766499.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This chapter centers on the development of the animal spirit and Christian thought in relation to both the spirit and knowledge of the material world. It reveals that the enduring doctrine of the ... More


The Animal Spirit Doctrine and the Origins of Neurophysiology

C.U.M. Smith, Eugenio Frixione, Stanley Finger, and William Clower

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199766499
eISBN:
9780199950263
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199766499.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This book examines the history of Western attempts to explain how messages might be sent from the sense organs to the brain and from the brain to the muscles. It focuses on a construct called animal ... More


The Optimum Rate of Investment and Growth

Maurice FitzGerald Scott

in A New View of Economic Growth

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198287421
eISBN:
9780191596872
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198287429.003.0015
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

Using post Second World War data for the USA and the UK up to 1973, marginal social returns to investment are tentatively estimated to have been about 13% per annum, and marginal post‐tax shareholder ... More


From Fishes to Frogs and Nerve Electricity

C. U. M. Smith, Eugenio Frixione, Stanley Finger, and William Clower

in The Animal Spirit Doctrine and the Origins of Neurophysiology

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199766499
eISBN:
9780199950263
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199766499.003.0015
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This chapter takes a look at efforts made in the study of the possibility that humans could create and store electricity, just like certain animals. It first introduces Luigi Galvani, who studied the ... More


Non-Spiritual Physiology II:: Irritable Fibers

C. U. M. Smith, Eugenio Frixione, Stanley Finger, and William Clower

in The Animal Spirit Doctrine and the Origins of Neurophysiology

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199766499
eISBN:
9780199950263
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199766499.003.0012
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This chapter is concerned with the fast development of the notion of irritability during the 18th century. This developed through the envisioning of various sensitive-motive “principles” found within ... More


Epilogue

C. U. M. Smith, Eugenio Frixione, Stanley Finger, and William Clower

in The Animal Spirit Doctrine and the Origins of Neurophysiology

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199766499
eISBN:
9780199950263
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199766499.003.0016
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This chapter summarizes important points that have been made in this book on the emergence of the animal spirit paradigm, its development, and how it was replaced by the notion of electricity. It ... More


Non-Indic Theories of Rebirth

Gananath Obeyesekere

in Imagining Karma: Ethical Transformation in Amerindian, Buddhist, and Greek Rebirth

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780520232204
eISBN:
9780520936300
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520232204.003.0002
Subject:
Religion, Buddhism

This chapter presents descriptions of rebirth beliefs from small-scale societies found in different parts of the world. It provides the reader with a feeling for the richness, range, and spread of ... More


Sensation: Ideas as Brain Patterns

Desmond M. Clarke

in Descartes's Theory of Mind

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199261239
eISBN:
9780191597213
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199261237.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

The Cartesian explanation of sensation includes a speculative account of how external and internal phenomena transmit information to the brain by triggering flows of animal spirits from the pineal ... More


Alexandria and Hellenistic Psychophysiology

C. U. M. Smith, Eugenio Frixione, Stanley Finger, and William Clower

in The Animal Spirit Doctrine and the Origins of Neurophysiology

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199766499
eISBN:
9780199950263
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199766499.003.0002
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This chapter takes a look at the evolution of the idea of internal pneumata, specifically the pneuma zootikon and the pneuma psychikon. It notes that there was a “silent period” during the history of ... More


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