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Animal Spirit in Action

C. U. M. Smith, Eugenio Frixione, Stanley Finger, and William Clower

in The Animal Spirit Doctrine and the Origins of Neurophysiology

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199766499
eISBN:
9780199950263
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199766499.003.0010
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This chapter discusses the changes and elaboration of the animal spirit doctrine by the foremost biomedical thinkers of the 18th century. It reviews Georg Ernst Stahl's animistic ideas, which were ... More


Animal Spirit in an Age of Faith

C. U. M. Smith, Eugenio Frixione, Stanley Finger, and William Clower

in The Animal Spirit Doctrine and the Origins of Neurophysiology

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199766499
eISBN:
9780199950263
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199766499.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This chapter centers on the development of the animal spirit and Christian thought in relation to both the spirit and knowledge of the material world. It reveals that the enduring doctrine of the ... More


The Animal Spirit Doctrine and the Origins of Neurophysiology

C.U.M. Smith, Eugenio Frixione, Stanley Finger, and William Clower

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199766499
eISBN:
9780199950263
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199766499.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This book examines the history of Western attempts to explain how messages might be sent from the sense organs to the brain and from the brain to the muscles. It focuses on a construct called animal ... More


The Optimum Rate of Investment and Growth

Maurice FitzGerald Scott

in A New View of Economic Growth

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198287421
eISBN:
9780191596872
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198287429.003.0015
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

Using post Second World War data for the USA and the UK up to 1973, marginal social returns to investment are tentatively estimated to have been about 13% per annum, and marginal post‐tax shareholder ... More


From Fishes to Frogs and Nerve Electricity

C. U. M. Smith, Eugenio Frixione, Stanley Finger, and William Clower

in The Animal Spirit Doctrine and the Origins of Neurophysiology

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199766499
eISBN:
9780199950263
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199766499.003.0015
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This chapter takes a look at efforts made in the study of the possibility that humans could create and store electricity, just like certain animals. It first introduces Luigi Galvani, who studied the ... More


Non-Indic Theories of Rebirth

Gananath Obeyesekere

in Imagining Karma: Ethical Transformation in Amerindian, Buddhist, and Greek Rebirth

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780520232204
eISBN:
9780520936300
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520232204.003.0002
Subject:
Religion, Buddhism

This chapter presents descriptions of rebirth beliefs from small-scale societies found in different parts of the world. It provides the reader with a feeling for the richness, range, and spread of ... More


Non-Spiritual Physiology II:: Irritable Fibers

C. U. M. Smith, Eugenio Frixione, Stanley Finger, and William Clower

in The Animal Spirit Doctrine and the Origins of Neurophysiology

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199766499
eISBN:
9780199950263
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199766499.003.0012
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This chapter is concerned with the fast development of the notion of irritability during the 18th century. This developed through the envisioning of various sensitive-motive “principles” found within ... More


Animal Spirits, Persistent Unemployment, and the Belief Function

Roger E. A. Farmer

in Rethinking Expectations: The Way Forward for Macroeconomics

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691155234
eISBN:
9781400846450
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691155234.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

This chapter examines the persistence of unemployment by drawing from John Maynard Keynes' two central ideas. The first idea is that any unemployment rate can persist as an equilibrium. The second is ... More


Animal Spirits

in Ambiguous Bodies: Reading the Grotesque in Japanese Setsuwa Tales

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780804759755
eISBN:
9780804771061
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804759755.003.0007
Subject:
Literature, World Literature

This chapter examines the representation of animal spirits in setsuwa focusing on foxes, monkeys, a tree with bird spirits, snakes, wild boars, raccoons, dogs, and tengu. It suggests that while the ... More


Epilogue

C. U. M. Smith, Eugenio Frixione, Stanley Finger, and William Clower

in The Animal Spirit Doctrine and the Origins of Neurophysiology

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199766499
eISBN:
9780199950263
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199766499.003.0016
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This chapter summarizes important points that have been made in this book on the emergence of the animal spirit paradigm, its development, and how it was replaced by the notion of electricity. It ... More


Sensation: Ideas as Brain Patterns

Desmond M. Clarke

in Descartes's Theory of Mind

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199261239
eISBN:
9780191597213
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199261237.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

The Cartesian explanation of sensation includes a speculative account of how external and internal phenomena transmit information to the brain by triggering flows of animal spirits from the pineal ... More


Alexandria and Hellenistic Psychophysiology

C. U. M. Smith, Eugenio Frixione, Stanley Finger, and William Clower

in The Animal Spirit Doctrine and the Origins of Neurophysiology

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199766499
eISBN:
9780199950263
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199766499.003.0002
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This chapter takes a look at the evolution of the idea of internal pneumata, specifically the pneuma zootikon and the pneuma psychikon. It notes that there was a “silent period” during the history of ... More


The Meaning of Uncertainty

Athol Fitzgibbons

in Keynes's Vision: A New Political Economy

Published in print:
1990
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198283201
eISBN:
9780191596254
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198283202.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought

Examines the meaning of uncertainty in the General Theory and elsewhere, and compares the theory of uncertainty with the theory of probability in the Treatise on Probability.


Galvani’s Animal Electricity

Stanley Finger and Marco Piccolino

in The Shocking History of Electric Fishes: From Ancient Epochs to the Birth of Modern Neurophysiology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780195366723
eISBN:
9780199897087
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195366723.003.0021
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

Luigi Galvani merits the lion's share of the credit for expanding the doctrine of animal electricity beyond the singular powers of a few fish, and for doing this in a way that would reshape the life ... More


Vengeful Spirits or Loving Spiritual Companions?: Changing Views of Pet Spirits

Barbara R. Ambros

in Bones of Contention: Animals and Religion in Contemporary Japan

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780824836269
eISBN:
9780824871512
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:
10.21313/hawaii/9780824836269.003.0005
Subject:
Religion, Religious Studies

This chapter considers the ongoing debate about the posthumous fate of animal spirits, which has been influenced by animistic, Buddhist, Christian, and spiritualist notions of the next life. It ... More


The Slow‐Down in Productivity Growth After 1973

Maurice FitzGerald Scott

in A New View of Economic Growth

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198287421
eISBN:
9780191596872
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198287429.003.0016
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

The build‐up in inflationary pressures in many countries in the late 1960s exploded with the commodity boom and oil shock of 1973. Why did the ensuing wide swings from inflation to deflation result ... More


Growth of the Firm and Industry

Maurice FitzGerald Scott

in A New View of Economic Growth

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198287421
eISBN:
9780191596872
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198287429.003.0009
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

We now consider a non‐representative firm that is growing faster or slower than the whole economy, but which still satisfies the stylized facts of growth (chapter 2). The relative price of its output ... More


Weighty Animal Spirits and Important Game Animals

Sarah M. Strong

in Ainu Spirits Singing: The Living World of Chiri Yukie's Ainu Shin'yoshu

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780824835125
eISBN:
9780824870331
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:
10.21313/hawaii/9780824835125.003.0004
Subject:
Society and Culture, Asian Studies

This chapter looks closely at eleven of the thirteen kamui yukar of the Ainu shin'yōshū and at the animal spirits whose story is told in them. As a matter of convenience, the kamui yukar are referred ... More


Symbolic and Ordinary Animal Spirits

Sarah M. Strong

in Ainu Spirits Singing: The Living World of Chiri Yukie's Ainu Shin'yoshu

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780824835125
eISBN:
9780824870331
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:
10.21313/hawaii/9780824835125.003.0005
Subject:
Society and Culture, Asian Studies

This chapter examines the remaining two categories of animal kamui in the Ainu shin'yōshū, those that are called symbolic and those that the Ainu call light or ordinary animal spirits. As in Chapter ... More


Fighting on the Metaphysical Landscapes of South Vietnam

Richard A. Ruth

in In Buddha's Company: Thai Soldiers in the Vietnam War

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780824834197
eISBN:
9780824870409
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:
10.21313/hawaii/9780824834197.003.0007
Subject:
History, Asian History

This chapter focuses on another battle fought by Thai soldiers in South Vietnam, out of sight of the news media and unacknowledged by the public. This conflict unfolded in the realm of the ... More


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