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The Search for Knowledge‐Based Resolution: Science and Scientific Assessment, 1976–1985

Edward A. Parson

in Protecting the Ozone Layer: Science and Strategy

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195155495
eISBN:
9780199833955
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195155491.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

The major lines of scientific debate, research progress, and controversy over stratospheric ozone depletion from the mid 1970s to the mid 1980s are examined. Begins with the initial qualitative ... More


SOLAR RADIATION TRANSFER IN THE ATMOSPHERE

I. M. Vardavas and F. W. Taylor

in Radiation and Climate

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199227471
eISBN:
9780191711138
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227471.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

This chapter examines the transfer of solar radiation within the Earth's atmosphere and at the surface. The main processes discussed are molecular absorption in the ultraviolet-visible and ... More


ATMOSPHERIC PHYSICS AND THERMODYNAMICS

I. M. Vardavas and F. W. Taylor

in Radiation and Climate

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199227471
eISBN:
9780191711138
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227471.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

This chapter discusses the main components of the atmosphere and the trace gases that are significant for the greenhouse effect. The most important of these is water vapour, and hence the basic ... More


THE EARTH'S RADIATION BUDGET

I. M. Vardavas and F. W. Taylor

in Radiation and Climate

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199227471
eISBN:
9780191711138
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227471.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

The Earth's radiation budget is examined in detail, beginning with the model input data requirements to generate the radiation fluxes. Requirements for satellite and ground-based validation data, ... More


Climatologies of Cloud-related Aerosols

in Clouds in the Perturbed Climate System: Their Relationship to Energy Balance, Atmospheric Dynamics, and Precipitation

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262012874
eISBN:
9780262255448
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262012874.003.0003
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter addresses the potential impacts of aerosols on climate and clouds. It first examines aerosol properties such as particle amount, size, composition, and shape, followed by a discussion on ... More


Why Climate-Change Skeptics Are Wrong

Kristin Shrader-Frechette

in What Will Work: Fighting Climate Change with Renewable Energy, Not Nuclear Power

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199794638
eISBN:
9780199919277
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199794638.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Chapter 1 begins by stressing the severity of climate change (CC) and showing how, contrary to popular belief, atomic energy is not a viable solution to ... More


Cloud Particle Precursors

Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Markus D. Petters, and Patrick Y. Chuang

in Clouds in the Perturbed Climate System: Their Relationship to Energy Balance, Atmospheric Dynamics, and Precipitation

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262012874
eISBN:
9780262255448
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262012874.003.0013
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter discusses the characteristic parameters of cloud particle precursors and the sensitivities of warm (liquid) and cold (mixed-phase and ice) cloud formation relevant to particle ... More


Do No Evil, See No Evil

Jeanne Guillemin

in Anthrax: The Investigation of a Deadly Outbreak

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780520222045
eISBN:
9780520927100
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520222045.003.0022
Subject:
Anthropology, Medical Anthropology

This chapter discusses the start of the anthrax outbreak from the viewpoint of a military officer, first studying the huge reformations of the Yeltsin era and the equally large turnover in military ... More


Cloud-controlling Factors of Cirrus

Bernd Kärcher and Peter Spichtinger

in Clouds in the Perturbed Climate System: Their Relationship to Energy Balance, Atmospheric Dynamics, and Precipitation

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262012874
eISBN:
9780262255448
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262012874.003.0011
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter discusses the factors that control cirrus clouds, which include small- and large-scale atmospheric dynamics, ice nucleation behavior of aerosol particles, and interaction with ... More


Cloud–Aerosol Interactions from the Micro to the Cloud Scale

Graham Feingold and Holger Siebert

in Clouds in the Perturbed Climate System: Their Relationship to Energy Balance, Atmospheric Dynamics, and Precipitation

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262012874
eISBN:
9780262255448
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262012874.003.0014
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter describes the microphysical interaction of aerosols and cloud processes from the micro to the cloud scale. Aerosol particles affect cloud dynamics by changing their droplet size ... More


Air Pollution and Precipitation

Greg Ayers and Zev Levin

in Clouds in the Perturbed Climate System: Their Relationship to Energy Balance, Atmospheric Dynamics, and Precipitation

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262012874
eISBN:
9780262255448
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262012874.003.0016
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter reviews the main points related to effects of aerosol–cloud precipitation interactions. It discusses aerosol impact on rainfall on the ground and looks closely at the physical hypothesis ... More


What Do We Know about Large-scale Changes of Aerosols, Clouds, and the Radiation Budget?

Teruyuki Nakajima and Michael Schulz

in Clouds in the Perturbed Climate System: Their Relationship to Energy Balance, Atmospheric Dynamics, and Precipitation

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262012874
eISBN:
9780262255448
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262012874.003.0017
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter examines anthropogenic perturbations of clouds on a global scale, as quantified by satellite remote sensing and surface measurements, and presents the signatures and features of ... More


The Extent and Nature of Anthropogenic Perturbations of Clouds

Patrick Y. Chuang, Rapporteurs Graham Feingold, Greg Ayers, Robert J. Charlson, William R. Cotton, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Zev Levin, Teruyuki Nakajima, Daniel Rosenfeld, Michael Schulz, and Holger Siebert

in Clouds in the Perturbed Climate System: Their Relationship to Energy Balance, Atmospheric Dynamics, and Precipitation

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262012874
eISBN:
9780262255448
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262012874.003.0018
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter discusses the extent and nature of anthropogenic perturbations of clouds. Anthropogenic influences can perturb clouds through aerosol changes, greenhouse gas warming, and land-surface ... More


Global Indirect Radiative Forcing Caused by Aerosols: IPCC (2007) and Beyond

Jim Haywood, Leo Donner, Andy Jones, and Jean-Christophe Golaz

in Clouds in the Perturbed Climate System: Their Relationship to Energy Balance, Atmospheric Dynamics, and Precipitation

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262012874
eISBN:
9780262255448
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262012874.003.0019
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

Aerosol particles are thought to exert a significant indirect radiative forcing because they act as cloud condensation nuclei in warm cloud formation and as ice nuclei in cold cloud-forming ... More


Aerosols and Clouds in Chemical Transport Models and Climate Models

Ulrike Lohmann and Stephen E. Schwartz

in Clouds in the Perturbed Climate System: Their Relationship to Energy Balance, Atmospheric Dynamics, and Precipitation

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262012874
eISBN:
9780262255448
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262012874.003.0023
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter explores the representation of aerosols and cloud microphysical processes in global-scale chemical transport models and global climate models. It also discusses cloud feedbacks in ... More


Current Understanding and Quantification of Clouds in the Changing Climate System and Strategies for Reducing Critical Uncertainties

Rapporteur Johannes Quaas, Sandrine Bony, William D. Collins, Leo Donner, Anthony Illingworth, Andy Jones, Ulrike Lohmann, Masaki Satoh, Stephen E. Schwartz, Wei-Kuo Tao, and Robert Wood

in Clouds in the Perturbed Climate System: Their Relationship to Energy Balance, Atmospheric Dynamics, and Precipitation

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262012874
eISBN:
9780262255448
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262012874.003.0024
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter emphasizes the apparent lack of progress in quantifying feedbacks between clouds and climate. It examines cloud aspects critical for quantifying aerosol indirect effects, which include ... More


Trends in Observed Cloudiness and Earth’s Radiation Budget: What Do We Not Know and What Do We Need to Know?

Joel R. Norris and Anthony Slingo

in Clouds in the Perturbed Climate System: Their Relationship to Energy Balance, Atmospheric Dynamics, and Precipitation

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262012874
eISBN:
9780262255448
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262012874.003.0002
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter investigates variations in cloudiness and changes in the Earth’s radiation budget (ERB), including their connection with other parameters of the climate system. Anthropogenic aerosol ... More


Cloud Properties from In-situ and Remote-sensing Measurements: Capability and Limitations

George A. Isaac and K. Sebastian Schmidt

in Clouds in the Perturbed Climate System: Their Relationship to Energy Balance, Atmospheric Dynamics, and Precipitation

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262012874
eISBN:
9780262255448
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262012874.003.0004
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter reviews the current in-situ and remote-sensing instrumentation, and discusses some problems and limitations such as instrument calibrations, expected accuracy, software analysis ... More


Temporal and Spatial Variability of Clouds and Related Aerosols: Theodore L. Anderson, Rapporteur

Andrew Ackerman, Dennis L. Hartmann, George A. Isaac, Stefan Kinne, Hirohiko Masunaga, Joel R. Norris, Ulrich Pöschl, Ulrich Pöschl, K. Sebastian Schmidt, Anthony Slingo, and Anthony Yukari N.

in Clouds in the Perturbed Climate System: Their Relationship to Energy Balance, Atmospheric Dynamics, and Precipitation

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262012874
eISBN:
9780262255448
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262012874.003.0006
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter examines aerosol–cloud relationships, focusing on the temporal and spatial variability of clouds and aerosols. It first describes the strategies for separating aerosol and meteorological ... More


Laboratory Cloud Simulation: Capabilities and Future Directions

Frank Stratmann, Ottmar Möhler, Raymond Shaw, and Wex Heike

in Clouds in the Perturbed Climate System: Their Relationship to Energy Balance, Atmospheric Dynamics, and Precipitation

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262012874
eISBN:
9780262255448
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262012874.003.0007
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter discusses the laboratory methods, instruments, and facilities used to investigate and simulate cloud physical processes, which include aerosol particle hygroscopic growth and activation, ... More


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