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Risk Transfer in Public Pension Plans

Olivia S. Mitchell and Kent Smetters

in The Pension Challenge: Risk Transfers and Retirement Income Security

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
August 2004
ISBN:
9780199266913
eISBN:
9780191601323
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199266913.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

This chapter shows that existing pension actuarial methods transfer risk away from early generations towards later generations. This causes equal expected costs to appear as unequal risk-adjusted ... More


The Proliferation of Actuarial Methods in Punishing and Policing

in Against Prediction: Profiling, Policing, and Punishing in an Actuarial Age

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226316130
eISBN:
9780226315997
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226315997.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law

This chapter documents the ascendance of the actuarial paradigm, focusing on a wide range of predictive tools in criminal law and punishment. It explores the use of actuarial methods in the larger ... More


The Virtues of Randomization

in Against Prediction: Profiling, Policing, and Punishing in an Actuarial Age

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226316130
eISBN:
9780226315997
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226315997.003.0010
Subject:
Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law

The critiques set forth in this book reflect problems with the actuarial approach more generally—not just with specific types of stereotyping or profiles. This chapter sketches the contours and ... More


Shades of Gray

in Against Prediction: Profiling, Policing, and Punishing in an Actuarial Age

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226316130
eISBN:
9780226315997
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226315997.003.0009
Subject:
Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law

This chapter begins by examining one instance of actuarial progress—Manhattan Bail Project—that has benefited poor and minority communities. The Manhattan Bail Project was initiated in October 1961 ... More


Prologue

in Against Prediction: Profiling, Policing, and Punishing in an Actuarial Age

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226316130
eISBN:
9780226315997
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226315997.003.0001
Subject:
Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law

Today, the actuarial permeates the field of criminal law and its enforcement. Risk-assessment tools are being used to identify whom to search, when to punish more, and how to administer the penal ... More


Ernest W. Burgess and Parole Prediction

in Against Prediction: Profiling, Policing, and Punishing in an Actuarial Age

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226316130
eISBN:
9780226315997
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226315997.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law

This chapter explores the birth of the actuarial in American criminal law, focusing on the development and use of the first actuarial instrument by Ernest W. Burgess in the late 1920s. Drawing on ... More


Against Prediction: Profiling, Policing, and Punishing in an Actuarial Age

Bernard E. Harcourt

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226316130
eISBN:
9780226315997
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226315997.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law

From random security checks at airports to the use of risk assessment in sentencing, actuarial methods are being used more than ever to determine whom law enforcement officials target and punish. And ... More


The Ratchet Effect: An Overlooked Social Cost

in Against Prediction: Profiling, Policing, and Punishing in an Actuarial Age

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226316130
eISBN:
9780226315997
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226315997.003.0006
Subject:
Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law

This chapter explains how the use of actuarial methods will have a distortive effect on the targeted population that will operate as a ratchet over time. The distortion occurs when profiling produces ... More


The Mathematics of Actuarial Prediction: The Illusion of Efficiency

in Against Prediction: Profiling, Policing, and Punishing in an Actuarial Age

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226316130
eISBN:
9780226315997
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226315997.003.0005
Subject:
Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law

One of the strongest arguments for the use of actuarial methods is the economic argument based on deterrence and efficiency: assuming that people respond rationally to the costs and incentives of ... More


The Early Years

Harold James, Peter Borscheid, David Gugerli, and Tobias Straumann

in The Value of Risk: Swiss Re and the History of Reinsurance

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
April 2014
ISBN:
9780199689804
eISBN:
9780191769450
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199689804.003.0002
Subject:
Business and Management, Business History, Innovation

Peter Borscheid's introductory chapter to the history of the global spread of insurance shows how traditional insurance models such as friendly societies were increasingly challenged by the emergence ... More


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