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Laws and Lawmakers Science, Metaphysics, and the Laws of Nature

Marc Lange

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195328134
eISBN:
9780199870042
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195328134.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Laws of nature have long puzzled philosophers. What distinguishes laws from facts about the world that do not rise to the level of laws? How can laws be contingent and nevertheless necessary? In what ... More


Conclusions

Price V. Fishback

in Soft Coal, Hard Choices: The Economic Welfare of Bituminous Coal Miners, 1890-1930

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195067255
eISBN:
9780199855025
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195067255.003.0012
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

Coal mining offered the opportunity to earn money quickly during booms, but it was a dirty, dangerous job often located in isolated little towns. To protect themselves against exploitation by ... More


Circumstance

Joseph Pilsner

in The Specification of Human Actions in St Thomas Aquinas

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780199286058
eISBN:
9780191603808
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199286051.003.0007
Subject:
Religion, Theology

A circumstance is an attendant property of an action. In murder, for instance, one might take note of the time, the type of weapon, or the perpetrator’s height. Although Aquinas in some contexts ... More


Who Will Go to Torah with Me?: Security Following Parental Death

Lynne Dale Halamish and Doron Hermoni

in The Weeping Willow: Encounters with Grief

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
November 2011
ISBN:
9780195325379
eISBN:
9780199999811
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195325379.003.0003
Subject:
Palliative Care, Patient Care and End-of-Life Decision Making, Palliative Medicine and Older People

This chapter discusses issues concerning the security of children following parental death, describing the case of a 12-year-old Jewish boy, Jordan, whose father died in a car accident. It explains ... More


What Is Freedom?: The Unique Perspective of the Individual

Lynne Dale Halamish and Doron Hermoni

in The Weeping Willow: Encounters with Grief

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
November 2011
ISBN:
9780195325379
eISBN:
9780199999811
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195325379.003.0013
Subject:
Palliative Care, Patient Care and End-of-Life Decision Making, Palliative Medicine and Older People

This chapter examines the concept of freedom in relation to the experience of 25-year-old Judah, who took the responsibility of caring for her girlfriend Sarah after they had a car accident and she ... More


Holism about Reasons

Sean McKeever and Michael Ridge

in Principled Ethics: Generalism as a Regulative Ideal

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780199290659
eISBN:
9780191603617
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199290652.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Particularists often try to draw support for their view from the alleged context sensitivity of reasons, and more specifically holism. According to holism about reasons, a consideration that is a ... More


British Rail 1974–1997: From Integration to Privatisation

Terry Gourvish

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199250059
eISBN:
9780191719516
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199250059.001.0001
Subject:
Business and Management, Business History

Britain's privatized railways continue to provoke debate about the organization, financing, and development of the railway system. This important book provides an authoritative account of the ... More


Introduction

Robert D. Cooter and Ariel Porat

in Getting Incentives Right: Improving Torts, Contracts, and Restitution

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691151595
eISBN:
9781400850396
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691151595.003.0001
Subject:
Law, Comparative Law

This book examines how the law of torts, contracts, and restitution can be improved by showing how private law reduces the cost of accidents, lubricates bargains, and encourages unrequested benefits. ... More


Lapses and Substitution

Robert D. Cooter and Ariel Porat

in Getting Incentives Right: Improving Torts, Contracts, and Restitution

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691151595
eISBN:
9781400850396
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691151595.003.0005
Subject:
Law, Comparative Law

This chapter deals with lapses of attention, for example by a driver or a doctor, and explains how a negligence rule gives injurers an incentive to substitute activities with unavoidable accidents ... More


Unity in the Law of Torts and Contracts

Robert D. Cooter and Ariel Porat

in Getting Incentives Right: Improving Torts, Contracts, and Restitution

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691151595
eISBN:
9781400850396
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691151595.003.0007
Subject:
Law, Comparative Law

This chapter deals with the problem of providing efficient incentives for the promisor and promisee simultaneously and repurposes the model of torts in a way that unifies tort law and contract law. ... More


Safety

Terry Gourvish

in British Rail 1974–1997: From Integration to Privatisation

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199250059
eISBN:
9780191719516
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199250059.003.0010
Subject:
Business and Management, Business History

This chapter discusses the increased attention on railway safety issues following the Clapham accident. Topics covered include the transformation of the safety culture, additional spending on safety, ... More


Liability Externalities and Mandatory Choices

Robert D. Cooter and Ariel Porat

in Getting Incentives Right: Improving Torts, Contracts, and Restitution

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691151595
eISBN:
9781400850396
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691151595.003.0011
Subject:
Law, Comparative Law

This chapter introduces the general theory of liability externalities and applies it to mandatory choices. “Liability externality” refers to costs and benefits conveyed to others that market prices ... More


Surface Water Transport of Radionuclides

Yasuo Onishi

in Radiological Risk Assessment and Environmental Analysis

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780195127270
eISBN:
9780199869121
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195127270.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

This chapter discusses methods to determine dissolved and sediment-sorbed radionuclides in rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, oceans, and lakes under accidental and routine radionuclide releases. It ... More


The Miracles: Diseases, Corpses, and Other Wonders

Jacalyn Duffin

in Medical Miracles: Doctors, Saints, and Healing in the Modern World

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195336504
eISBN:
9780199868612
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195336504.003.0004
Subject:
Religion, History of Christianity

An exploration of the problems resolved miraculously. The vast majority are cures from illness. The diseases amendable to miracle cure change through time according to medical science. Some ... More


Risks

Michael Quinlan

in Thinking About Nuclear Weapons: Principles, Problems, Prospects

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199563944
eISBN:
9780191721274
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199563944.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter reviews a range of risks commonly believed, rightly or wrongly, to arise from the existence of nuclear weapons. It examines first the concept of stability, in two forms—deterrent ... More


Some Later Medieval Theories of the Eucharist: Thomas Aquinas, Gilles of Rome, Duns Scotus, and William Ockham

Marilyn McCord Adams

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199591053
eISBN:
9780191595554
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199591053.001.0001
Subject:
Religion, Theology, Philosophy of Religion

This book is a work in historical theology and history of philosophy, combined. It focuses on how the theological data of real presence — that after the consecration of eucharistic bread and wine, ... More


On the Explanation of Typologically Unusual Structures

Alice C. Harris

in Linguistic Universals and Language Change

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199298495
eISBN:
9780191711442
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199298495.003.0003
Subject:
Linguistics, Historical Linguistics

This chapter argues that languages are ‘bundles of historical accidents’. It further argues that unusual or rare features are unusual or rare because they are the accidental result of many different ... More


Historical contingency and the development of planetary ecosystems

David M. Wilkinson

in Fundamental Processes in Ecology: An earth systems approach

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198568469
eISBN:
9780191717611
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568469.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

The ecology of a planet is influenced by historical processes. At any stage in its development, the current conditions of life on a planet form the starting point from which new conditions develop. ... More


Accidents and Accidental Unity

Richard Cross

in The Physics of Duns Scotus: The Scientific Context of a Theological Vision

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198269748
eISBN:
9780191683787
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198269748.003.0006
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy of Religion, Theology

This chapter begins by introducing Aristotle's scheme for classifying the kinds of predicates according to substance, quality, quantity, relation, ... More


Accidents Without Substance: Aquinas and Giles of Rome

Marilyn McCord Adams

in Some Later Medieval Theories of the Eucharist: Thomas Aquinas, Gilles of Rome, Duns Scotus, and William Ockham

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199591053
eISBN:
9780191595554
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199591053.003.0009
Subject:
Religion, Theology, Philosophy of Religion

Experience shows that after consecration, the eucharistic accidents are still extended on the altar and that what remains continues to be causally interactive in all of the ways that bread would be. ... More


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