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Complementary techniques

Naomi E. Chayen, John R. Helliwell, and Edward H. Snell

in Macromolecular Crystallization and Crystal Perfection

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199213252
eISBN:
9780191707575
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213252.003.0018
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

Crystallography is a powerful technique but also one that has limitations. There are a number of complementary techniques that significantly add to the information available crystallographically.


Interband magneto - optical effects

P. K. Basu

in Theory of Optical Processes in Semiconductors: Bulk and Microstructures

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198526209
eISBN:
9780191706790
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198526209.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

The behaviour of a semiconductor in the presence of a high magnetic field is different from its behaviour in the absence of a field discussed so far. This chapter first discusses the effect of a ... More


The Optics of Life: A Biologist's Guide to Light in Nature

Sönke Johnsen

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691139906
eISBN:
9781400840663
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691139906.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Optics—a field of physics focusing on the study of light—is also central to many areas of biology, including vision, ecology, botany, animal behavior, neurobiology, and molecular biology. This book ... More


Beam-target interaction

Stefano Atzeni and JÜrgen Meyer-Ter-Vehn

in The Physics of Inertial Fusion: BeamPlasma Interaction, Hydrodynamics, Hot Dense Matter

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198562641
eISBN:
9780191714030
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198562641.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Nuclear and Plasma Physics

Targets for inertial fusion are driven by external beams. Energy deposition of high-power laser and ion beams is considered for cold and hot dense matter. Collisional and resonance absorption of ... More


Radiative transfer and the formation of spectral lines

Alan Corney

in Atomic and Laser Spectroscopy

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199211456
eISBN:
9780191705915
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199211456.003.0010
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter derives the equation of radiative transfer for an excited gas sample. The terms source function and optical thickness are also defined, and the effects of self absorption are considered. ... More


Tunable dye lasers and atomic spectroscopy

Alan Corney

in Atomic and Laser Spectroscopy

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199211456
eISBN:
9780191705915
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199211456.003.0014
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter discusses the principles of tunable dye lasers and the construction of some typical systems. Applications of these devices to atomic saturated absorption spectroscopy, the measurement of ... More


Why Exchange Rate Changes Will Not Correct Global Trade Imbalances

Ronald I. McKinnon

in The Unloved Dollar Standard: From Bretton Woods to the Rise of China

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199937004
eISBN:
9780199980703
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199937004.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

The commonly used elasticities model of the balance of trade projects that a country's trade surplus will decline if its currency is appreciated. Its exports become more expensive to foreigners, and ... More


Adaptations: Obtaining and Processing Food

J. Eduardo P. W. Bicudo, William A. Buttemer, Mark A. Chappell, James T. Pearson, and Claus Bech

in Ecological and Environmental Physiology of Birds

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199228447
eISBN:
9780191711305
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199228447.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Ornithology

This chapter reviews the diversity of feeding habits among birds and the consequences for their nutritional ecology. Different digestion strategies are also emphasized. Food selection is often ... More


Nutritional physiology and ecology

Steven L. Chown and Sue W. Nicolson

in Insect Physiological Ecology: Mechanisms and Patterns

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198515494
eISBN:
9780191705649
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515494.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

Nutritional ecology covers the behavioural, physiological, and ecological aspects of nutrition. As in many areas of insect physiology, most information is available for caterpillars and locusts, ... More


The Perception of Quality: Visual Color

Stephen Handel

in Perceptual Coherence: Hearing and seeing

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195169645
eISBN:
9780199786732
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195169645.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

The color stimulus reaching the observer is the result of the source illumination being filtered by the specular and surface reflectance. Both the illumination and reflectance can be represented by ... More


Grace and the Saviour's Personal Subject in Cassian's De Incarnatione Domini

Donald Fairbairn

in Grace and Christology in the Early Church

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199256143
eISBN:
9780191600586
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199256144.003.0006
Subject:
Religion, Early Christian Studies

This chapter deals with Cassian's On the Incarnation of the Lord and argues that the understanding of grace and salvation developed in that work is consistent with that found in Cassian's monastic ... More


Anonymous Life: Romanticism and Dispossession

Jacques Khalip

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780804758406
eISBN:
9780804779685
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804758406.001.0001
Subject:
Literature, 19th-century Literature and Romanticism

Romanticism is often synonymous with models of identity and action that privilege individual empowerment and emotional autonomy, models that, in the last two decades, have been the focus of critiques ... More


RADIATION-TRANSFER THEORY

I. M. Vardavas and F. W. Taylor

in Radiation and Climate

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199227471
eISBN:
9780191711138
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227471.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

This chapter develops the mathematical formulation of the physics of radiation transfer within atmospheres, applicable to both planetary and stellar atmospheres. Definitions are given of the basic ... More


THERMAL INFRA-RED TRANSFER IN THE ATMOSPHERE

I. M. Vardavas and F. W. Taylor

in Radiation and Climate

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199227471
eISBN:
9780191711138
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227471.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

This chapter examines the transfer of thermal radiation through atmospheres. The properties of atomic and molecular spectral lines are given. The basic theory of vibrational and rotational energy ... More


SOLAR RADIATION TRANSFER IN THE ATMOSPHERE

I. M. Vardavas and F. W. Taylor

in Radiation and Climate

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199227471
eISBN:
9780191711138
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227471.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

This chapter examines the transfer of solar radiation within the Earth's atmosphere and at the surface. The main processes discussed are molecular absorption in the ultraviolet-visible and ... More


Making the most of difficult crystals — beamline and detector optimization

Naomi E. Chayen, John R. Helliwell, and Edward H. Snell

in Macromolecular Crystallization and Crystal Perfection

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199213252
eISBN:
9780191707575
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213252.003.0016
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

The geometry of the crystallographic instrumentation is described with an emphasis on synchrotron radiation beamline setups in the hutch. The measurement principles of ‘signal to noise’ as well as ... More


Reducing Poverty and Inequality in India: Has Liberalization Helped?

Raghbendra Jha

in Inequality Growth and Poverty in an Era of Liberalization and Globalization

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
August 2004
ISBN:
9780199271412
eISBN:
9780191601255
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199271410.003.0012
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This is the first of five country case studies on income inequality, and looks at the case of India. Discusses the differences between the approach taken to liberalization in India (the Delhi ... More


Imperial Ideology and Provincial Loyalty in the Roman Empire

Clifford Ando

Giday WoldeGabriel (ed.)

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520220676
eISBN:
9780520923720
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520220676.001.0001
Subject:
Classical Studies, Archaeology: Classical

The Roman empire remains unique. Although Rome claimed to rule the world, it did not. Rather, its uniqueness stems from the culture it created and the loyalty it inspired across an area that ... More


Absorption

Sönke Johnsen

in The Optics of Life: A Biologist's Guide to Light in Nature

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691139906
eISBN:
9781400840663
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691139906.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter focuses on absorption. Absorption has been called the “death of photons.” While the energy of a photon is never truly lost, most people find the conversion of photons into heat and ... More


ELECTRICAL METHODS OF NONIDEAL PLASMA GENERATION

V. E. Fortov, I. T. Iakubov, and A. G. Khrapak

in Physics of Strongly Coupled Plasma

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199299805
eISBN:
9780191714948
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199299805.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Nuclear and Plasma Physics

This chapter examines the electrical methods of nonideal plasma generation, including three principally different techniques, namely, the heating in resistance furnaces of ampoules containing the ... More


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