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Overall summary and future thoughts

Naomi E. Chayen, John R. Helliwell, and Edward H. Snell

in Macromolecular Crystallization and Crystal Perfection

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199213252
eISBN:
9780191707575
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213252.003.0020
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

This chapter summarizes the state‐of‐the‐art in the field and discusses upcoming techniques to solve and to improve the current problems.


Crystal Structure Analysis: Principles and Practice

William Clegg, Alexander J Blake, Jacqueline M Cole, John S O Evans, Peter Main, Simon Parsons, and David J Watkin (eds)

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199219469
eISBN:
9780191722516
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199219469.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

This book presents a less mathematical approach to X-ray crystal structure determination than is given in some detailed texts and concentrates on practical aspects. The book provides the necessary ... More


Macromolecular crystals and twinning

Naomi E. Chayen, John R. Helliwell, and Edward H. Snell

in Macromolecular Crystallization and Crystal Perfection

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199213252
eISBN:
9780191707575
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213252.003.0012
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

Macromolecular crystal structure analyses can be severely hampered by cases of twinning or of multiple crystals. However, increasingly, twinning can readily be recognized, notably when the X‐ray ... More


Introduction

Naomi E. Chayen, John R. Helliwell, and Edward H. Snell

in Macromolecular Crystallization and Crystal Perfection

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199213252
eISBN:
9780191707575
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213252.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

Macromolecules are the machinery of life and their function is determined by their 3D structure. Visual observation with a light microscope is not possible as the sizes of macromolecules are well ... More


Towards research

John Jenkin

in William and Lawrence Bragg, Father and Son: The Most Extraordinary Collaboration in Science

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199235209
eISBN:
9780191715631
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199235209.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

William explored teaching problems beyond the textbooks and was encouraged by AAAS meetings and the need to nominate students for the new 1851 Exhibition Research Scholarships. Lawrence began his ... More


Further research: X-rays and γ-rays

John Jenkin

in William and Lawrence Bragg, Father and Son: The Most Extraordinary Collaboration in Science

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199235209
eISBN:
9780191715631
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199235209.003.0013
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

Radioactive ores discovered in outback South Australia were found by William to contain uranium minerals, and not developed commercially until many years later. At home he welcomed the birth of a ... More


TOMOGRAPHY USING MAGNIFYING OPTICS

Yoshio Suzuki, Hiroyuki Toda, and Christian Schroer

in Advanced Tomographic Methods in Materials Research and Engineering

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199213245
eISBN:
9780191707582
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213245.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter describes the principles of Fresnel zone-plate (FZP) optics and imaging properties of FZP microscopy in the context of tomographic application. The limitation of zone-plate optics is ... More


THREE-DIMENSIONAL X-RAY DIFFRACTION

Henning Friis Poulsen

in Advanced Tomographic Methods in Materials Research and Engineering

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199213245
eISBN:
9780191707582
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213245.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) is a novel technique aimed at quick and non-destructive characterization of the individual elements within millimetre- to centimetre-sized specimens. It is ... More


Rules Relating to Other Specific Technologies

William H. Boothby

in Weapons and the Law of Armed Conflict

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199569946
eISBN:
9780191705250
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199569946.003.0012
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

After a brief introduction to the topic, this chapter discusses three classes of weapon for which specific provision is made in Protocols to the Conventional Weapons Convention. In each case, the ... More


The crystalline state and its study

Dennis Sherwood and Jon Cooper

in Crystals, X-rays and Proteins: Comprehensive Protein Crystallography

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199559046
eISBN:
9780191595028
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199559046.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

This chapter provides an introduction to the fundamental states of matter and the phenomenon of anisotropy which is attributable to the ordered solid state. Solids which possess molecular order over ... More


Light is a Messenger: The Life and Science of William Lawrence Bragg

Graeme K. Hunter

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198529217
eISBN:
9780191712937
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529217.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

This book is a biography of William Lawrence Bragg, who was only twenty-five when he won the 1915 Nobel Prize in physics — the youngest person ever to win a Nobel Prize. It describes how Bragg ... More


Principles of radiotherapy

Peter Hoskin and Wendy Makin

in Oncology for Palliative Medicine

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2011
ISBN:
9780192628114
eISBN:
9780191730115
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192628114.003.0005
Subject:
Palliative Care, Patient Care and End-of-Life Decision Making, Pain Management and Palliative Pharmacology

This chapter provides an overview of radiotherapy. Radiotherapy is the method of treatment using ionizing radiation. Normally, radiation is in the form of X-rays or gamma rays which, when directed ... More


X-ray and neutron sources

William Clegg

in Crystal Structure Analysis: Principles and Practice

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199219469
eISBN:
9780191722516
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199219469.003.0022
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

Crystal structure determination by diffraction uses X-rays or neutrons. X-rays are readily available in laboratories from a standard X-ray tube, in which electron kinetic energy is converted to ... More


Concatenation of fortunate circumstances: Cambridge, 1909–14

Graeme K. Hunter

in Light is a Messenger: The Life and Science of William Lawrence Bragg

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198529217
eISBN:
9780191712937
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529217.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

This chapter details the life of William Lawrence Bragg from 1909–14. In the spring of 1910, Bragg competed in the Trinity scholarships examination. The Master of Trinity, Montagu Butler, read his ... More


Röntgen and the Discovery of X‐rays

André Authier

in Early Days of X-ray Crystallography

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199659845
eISBN:
9780191748219
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199659845.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

The circumstances surrounding Röntgen’s discovery of X-rays are related, as well as the detailed investigations he made on the properties of X-rays before announcing the discovery. An account of his ... More


Reception and Early Developments

Helge Kragh

in Niels Bohr and the Quantum Atom: The Bohr Model of Atomic Structure 1913–1925

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199654987
eISBN:
9780191741692
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199654987.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

Bohr’s theory was generally well received, although few physicists accepted the postulates on which it rested. It was found attractive because of its explanatory and predictive power. This chapter ... More


The Nature of X‐Rays: Waves or Corpuscles?

André Authier

in Early Days of X-ray Crystallography

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199659845
eISBN:
9780191748219
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199659845.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

This chapter relates the discussions which took place before the discovery of X-ray diffraction as to the real nature, wave or corpuscular, of X-rays. Similar discussions as to the nature of ... More


Assassin or Look-Alike

Joe Nickell

in Real or Fake: Studies in Authentication

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813125343
eISBN:
9780813135229
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Kentucky
DOI:
10.5810/kentucky/9780813125343.003.0011
Subject:
History, Social History

This chapter investigates if the photographs and videotapes of the assassin of President John F. Kennedy really depict ex-marine Lee Harvey Oswald. The first scientific attempt to identify felons ... More


Strange Rays

James Lawrence Powell

in Four Revolutions in the Earth Sciences: From Heresy to Truth

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231164481
eISBN:
9780231538459
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231164481.003.0005
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

This chapter focuses on the initiatives of various physicists and chemists to explore the strange new rays called X-rays that were discovered by Wilhelm Röntgen in 1895. The decade of the 1890s was a ... More


Peering Inside Proteins

Brent R. Stockwell

in The Quest for the Cure: The Science and Stories Behind the Next Generation of Medicines

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231152136
eISBN:
9780231525527
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231152136.003.0007
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter examines why some proteins are more susceptible to modulation by small molecule drugs than other proteins. To this end, the chapter presents an atom-by-atom picture of proteins and where ... More


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