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Macromolecular Crystallization and Crystal Perfection

Naomi E. Chayen, John R. Helliwell, and Edward H. Snell

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199213252
eISBN:
9780191707575
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213252.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

Structural crystallography provides key information to understand the mechanism involved for biological processes. The technique requires high‐quality crystals. The book Macromolecular ... More


The X‐ray laser and the single molecule — no crystal needed?

Naomi E. Chayen, John R. Helliwell, and Edward H. Snell

in Macromolecular Crystallization and Crystal Perfection

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199213252
eISBN:
9780191707575
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213252.003.0019
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

Major increases in brightness are anticipated with the upcoming coherent X‐ray lasers. Extrapolation suggests that a single macromolecule ‘sample’ may be sufficient to generate a measurable X‐ray ... More


Coherent X-Ray Optics

David Paganin

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198567288
eISBN:
9780191717963
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567288.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This book offers a grounding in the field of coherent X-ray optics, which in the closing years of the 20th century experienced something of a renaissance with the availability of third-generation ... More


Complementary techniques

Naomi E. Chayen, John R. Helliwell, and Edward H. Snell

in Macromolecular Crystallization and Crystal Perfection

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199213252
eISBN:
9780191707575
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213252.003.0018
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

Crystallography is a powerful technique but also one that has limitations. There are a number of complementary techniques that significantly add to the information available crystallographically.


Stellar-Mass Black Holes

Charles D. Bailyn

in What Does a Black Hole Look Like?

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691148823
eISBN:
9781400850563
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691148823.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter examines stellar-mass black holes. The empirical study of black holes began in the 1960s with the discovery of quasars and the advent of X-ray astronomy. X-ray detectors could detect ... More


Crystals, X-rays and Proteins: Comprehensive Protein Crystallography

Dennis Sherwood and Jon Cooper

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199559046
eISBN:
9780191595028
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199559046.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

This book presents a complete account of the theory of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals with particular reference to the processes of determining the structures of protein molecules. The book ... More


The Progenitors of Gamma-Ray Bursts

Joshua S. Bloom

in What Are Gamma-Ray Bursts?

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691145570
eISBN:
9781400837007
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691145570.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter discusses the object or objects responsible for gramma-ray bursts (GRBs). Until now, there are few absolute certainties with regard to the progenitors of GRBs. One clear standout is the ... More


Introduction to diffraction

Peter Main

in Crystal Structure Analysis: Principles and Practice

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199219469
eISBN:
9780191722516
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199219469.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

This introductory chapter provides information on some fundamental aspects of crystal structures and their diffraction of X-rays as a basis for the rest of the book. It describes electrons, atoms, ... More


Max Perutz and the SPSL

Georgina Ferry

in In Defence of Learning: The Plight, Persecution, and Placement of Academic Refugees, 1933-1980s

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780197264812
eISBN:
9780191754029
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264812.003.0006
Subject:
Sociology, Migration Studies (including Refugee Studies)

This chapter focuses on Austrian-born molecular biologist Max Perutz (1914–2002). Perutz was one of twenty scientific refugees from continental Europe who went on to win Nobel Prizes. A chemist and ... More


Macromolecular Crystallography: conventional and high-throughput methods

Mark R. Sanderson and Jane V. Skelly (eds)

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198520979
eISBN:
9780191706295
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198520979.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

Macromolecular crystallography is the study of macromolecules (proteins and nucleic acids) using X-ray crystallographic techniques in order to determine their molecular structure. The knowledge of ... More


Classical cloning, expression, and purification

Jane Skelly, Maninder K. Sohi, and Thil Batuwangala

in Macromolecular Crystallography: conventional and high-throughput methods

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198520979
eISBN:
9780191706295
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198520979.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

The ideal protein-expression strategy for X-ray structural analysis should provide correctly folded, soluble, and active protein in sufficient quantities for successful crystallization. Subsequent ... More


Automation of non-conventional crystallization techniques for screening and optimization

Naomi E. Chayen

in Macromolecular Crystallography: conventional and high-throughput methods

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198520979
eISBN:
9780191706295
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198520979.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

The availability of high-quality crystals is crucial to the structure determination of proteins by X-ray diffraction. It is still not understood why some proteins crystallize with ease while others ... More


First analysis of macromolecular crystals

Sherin S. Abdel-Meguid, David Jeruzalmi, and Mark R. Sanderson

in Macromolecular Crystallography: conventional and high-throughput methods

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198520979
eISBN:
9780191706295
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198520979.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

The past decade and a half have witnessed an almost complete revolution in the way that macromolecular diffraction data are recorded. The promise of diffraction data measurements essentially free of ... More


Molecular replacement techniques for high-throughput structure determination

Marc Delarue

in Macromolecular Crystallography: conventional and high-throughput methods

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198520979
eISBN:
9780191706295
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198520979.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

In the context of structural genomics projects, there are two main routes to consider for solving efficiently and rapidly the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the target gene products by ... More


Phase refinement through density modification

Jan Pieter Abrahams, Jasper R. Plaisier, Steven Ness, and Navraj S. Pannu

in Macromolecular Crystallography: conventional and high-throughput methods

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198520979
eISBN:
9780191706295
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198520979.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

This chapter discusses the concept of density modification, where a priori information about the structure of the macromolecule being studied is used to improve phase estimates. These concepts of ... More


Crystallography in the study of protein–DNA interaction

Maninder K. Sohi and Ivan Laponogov

in Macromolecular Crystallography: conventional and high-throughput methods

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198520979
eISBN:
9780191706295
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198520979.003.0015
Subject:
Biology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

In the living cell, protein-DNA interactions take place during genetic processes such as chromatin organization, recombination, replication, transcription, and DNA repair. In order to fully ... More


Conceiving a Master Molecule

Jan Sapp

in Genesis: The Evolution of Biology

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195156195
eISBN:
9780199790340
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195156195.003.0016
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter focuses on the discovery of DNA. The discovery of DNA as the basis of the gene, how it is reproduced, and how it affects protein synthesis was the pinnacle of life sciences in the 20th ... More


Analysis of long‐range order

Naomi E. Chayen, John R. Helliwell, and Edward H. Snell

in Macromolecular Crystallization and Crystal Perfection

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199213252
eISBN:
9780191707575
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213252.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

Mosaicity, topography, and reciprocal‐space mapping are all techniques to probe the physical characteristics of the crystals through their interaction with X‐rays. The techniques described are ... More


William and Lawrence Bragg, Father and Son: The Most Extraordinary Collaboration in Science

John Jenkin

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199235209
eISBN:
9780191715631
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199235209.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

This book describes how Lawrence and William Bragg, son and father, invented, developed, and led the scientific field of X-ray crystallography for fifty years, transforming much of modern science. ... More


Dynamical Theory of X-Ray Diffraction

André Authier

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198528920
eISBN:
9780191713125
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528920.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

X-ray diffraction is a major tool for the study of crystal structures and the characterization of crystal perfection. Since the discovery of X-ray diffraction by von Laue, Friedrich, and Knipping in ... More


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