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“It’s just the gym”: Female Physical Educators, 1950–2005

Martha H. Verbrugge

in Active Bodies: A History of Women’s Physical Education in Twentieth-Century America

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780195168792
eISBN:
9780199949649
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195168792.003.0007
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century, American History: 19th Century

Chapter 7 (the counterpart to Chapter 1) examines the status of white and black female physical educators, coaches, and administrators in academic institutions as their profession matured and women’s ... More


Treatment as an Equal

Deborah L. Brake

in Getting in the Game: Title IX and the Women's Sports Revolution

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814799659
eISBN:
9780814789797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814799659.003.0007
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

This chapter examines Title IX's equal treatment framework and its progress toward equalizing the treatment and benefits given to male and female athletes, along with its limitations. The biggest ... More


In the Meantime: The Early Days of Title IX

Susan Ware

in Game, Set, Match: Billie Jean King and the Revolution in Women's Sports

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
July 2014
ISBN:
9780807834541
eISBN:
9781469603384
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/9780807877999_ware.5
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter describes how Billie Jean King dramatically recalled her feelings about the Bobby Riggs match's larger historical significance for reporter Selena Roberts. “My job in the match, and I ... More


Beyond Equal Access: Retaliation, Coaching, And Sexual Harassment

Deborah L. Brake

in Getting in the Game: Title IX and the Women's Sports Revolution

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814799659
eISBN:
9780814789797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814799659.003.0009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

This chapter examines three issues that are central to Title IX's gender equality goals beyond getting women into sports and providing equal support and benefits: protection of individuals who are ... More


6 Treatment as an Equal

Deborah L. Brake

in Getting in the Game: Title IX and the Women's Sports Revolution

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814799659
eISBN:
9780814789797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814799659.003.0007
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

This chapter examines Title IX's equal treatment framework and its progress toward equalizing the treatment and benefits given to male and female athletes, along with its limitations. The biggest ... More


8 Beyond Equal Access: Retaliation, Coaching, And Sexual Harassment

Deborah L. Brake

in Getting in the Game: Title IX and the Women's Sports Revolution

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814799659
eISBN:
9780814789797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814799659.003.0009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

This chapter examines three issues that are central to Title IX's gender equality goals beyond getting women into sports and providing equal support and benefits: protection of individuals who are ... More


Complicating Equal Participation: What Counts as a Sport, Which Sports Should Women Play, and Which Women Should Play Them?

Deborah L. Brake

in Getting in the Game: Title IX and the Women's Sports Revolution

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814799659
eISBN:
9780814789797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814799659.003.0005
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

This chapter focuses on Title IX's three-part test for measuring equal participation opportunities. It first examines what counts as a sport for Title IX purposes, with particular emphasis on the ... More


Cutting Men’s Opportunities to Help Women? Title IX and Leveling Down

Deborah L. Brake

in Getting in the Game: Title IX and the Women's Sports Revolution

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814799659
eISBN:
9780814789797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814799659.003.0006
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

This chapter focuses on the debate over whether Title IX's three-part test is hurting men's sports. In particular, it examines whether women really benefit from Title IX if schools cut or cap men's ... More


Conclusion

Deborah L. Brake

in Getting in the Game: Title IX and the Women's Sports Revolution

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814799659
eISBN:
9780814789797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814799659.003.0010
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

This concluding chapter examines how Title IX has been able to navigate and survive the backlash against it. It shows how women's influx into sports has created prime conditions for backlash by ... More


Opening Doors for Women: Title IX and the Death of “Women Need Not Apply”

Deondra Rose

in Citizenship By Degree: U.S. Higher Education Policy and the Changing Gender Dynamics of American Citizenship

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780190650940
eISBN:
9780190867300
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190650940.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

This chapter offers a final case study of landmark higher education policy development, analyzing the creation of Title IX. By departing from the redistributive policy design of the National Defense ... More


Conclusion

Deborah L. Brake

in Getting in the Game: Title IX and the Women's Sports Revolution

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814799659
eISBN:
9780814789797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814799659.003.0010
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

This concluding chapter examines how Title IX has been able to navigate and survive the backlash against it. It shows how women's influx into sports has created prime conditions for backlash by ... More


5 Cutting Men’s Opportunities to Help Women? Title IX and Leveling Down

Deborah L. Brake

in Getting in the Game: Title IX and the Women's Sports Revolution

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814799659
eISBN:
9780814789797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814799659.003.0006
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

This chapter focuses on the debate over whether Title IX's three-part test is hurting men's sports. In particular, it examines whether women really benefit from Title IX if schools cut or cap men's ... More


Integration Rights: Girls Playing with Boys and Boys Playing with Girls

Deborah L. Brake

in Getting in the Game: Title IX and the Women's Sports Revolution

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814799659
eISBN:
9780814789797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814799659.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

This chapter examines integration rights as an important qualification to sex-separate opportunities and how such rights help mitigate, if not eliminate, the downsides of sex separation in sports. ... More


The Dilemma of Difference and the “Problem” of Pregnancy

Deborah L. Brake

in Getting in the Game: Title IX and the Women's Sports Revolution

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814799659
eISBN:
9780814789797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814799659.003.0008
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

This chapter examines Title IX's progress in changing the cultural norms surrounding women's participation in sports by focusing on how it deals with issues facing athletes who become pregnant. It ... More


The Civil Rights Restoration Act and Enforcement of Title IX

Howard P. Chudacoff

in Changing the Playbook: How Power, Profit, and Politics Transformed College Sports

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252039782
eISBN:
9780252097881
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252039782.003.0006
Subject:
Sociology, Sport and Leisure

This chapter discusses Title IX, the Civil Rights Restoration Act, and gender equity on college sports. The Education Amendments passed by Congress in 1972 included a provision in its Title IX that ... More


2 Integration Rights: Girls Playing with Boys and Boys Playing with Girls

Deborah L. Brake

in Getting in the Game: Title IX and the Women's Sports Revolution

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814799659
eISBN:
9780814789797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814799659.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

This chapter examines integration rights as an important qualification to sex-separate opportunities and how such rights help mitigate, if not eliminate, the downsides of sex separation in sports. ... More


4 Complicating Equal Participation: What Counts as a Sport, Which Sports Should Women Play, and Which Women Should Play Them?

Deborah L. Brake

in Getting in the Game: Title IX and the Women's Sports Revolution

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814799659
eISBN:
9780814789797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814799659.003.0005
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

This chapter focuses on Title IX's three-part test for measuring equal participation opportunities. It first examines what counts as a sport for Title IX purposes, with particular emphasis on the ... More


7 The Dilemma of Difference and the “Problem” of Pregnancy

Deborah L. Brake

in Getting in the Game: Title IX and the Women's Sports Revolution

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814799659
eISBN:
9780814789797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814799659.003.0008
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

This chapter examines Title IX's progress in changing the cultural norms surrounding women's participation in sports by focusing on how it deals with issues facing athletes who become pregnant. It ... More


Introduction: The Feminism of Title IX

Deborah L. Brake

in Getting in the Game: Title IX and the Women's Sports Revolution

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814799659
eISBN:
9780814789797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814799659.003.0001
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

This book explores the successes and limitations of Title IX—a federal law banning sex discrimination in federally funded education programs—as a vehicle for social change, especially in the area of ... More


Separate Is Equal?

Deborah L. Brake

in Getting in the Game: Title IX and the Women's Sports Revolution

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814799659
eISBN:
9780814789797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814799659.003.0002
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

This chapter examines how Title IX strikes a balance between accommodating and minimizing sex differences for purposes of team selection. Title IX's allowance for sex separation in sports has ... More


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