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Darwin's Champions

Jan Sapp

in Genesis: The Evolution of Biology

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195156195
eISBN:
9780199790340
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195156195.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter focuses on champions of Darwin's evolutionary theory, the most prominent being Thomas Henry Huxley in the UK and Ernst Haeckel in Germany. Topics discussed include man's place in nature, ... More


‘A Solitude beyond the Reach of God or Man’: Victorian Agnostics and Death

Pat Jalland

in Death in the Victorian Family

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198201885
eISBN:
9780191675058
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198201885.003.0018
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History

The decline of Evangelicalism, the emergence of biblical criticisms, and the introduction of science in the latter part of the Victorian period created some agnostics views of death. This chapter ... More


Malthus or Mutualism?: Huxley, Kropotkin, and the Moral Meaning of Darwinism

Piers J. Hale

in Political Descent: Malthus, Mutualism, and the Politics of Evolution in Victorian England

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780226108490
eISBN:
9780226108520
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226108520.003.0005
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

In ‘The Struggle for Existence’ (1888) Huxley portrayed nature as a Malthusian gladiators arena in which only the strong survived. While this was the context from which humans had evolved, mankind ... More


Intellectual Freedom

Matthew Stanley

in Huxley's Church and Maxwell's Demon: From Theistic Science to Naturalistic Science

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226164878
eISBN:
9780226164908
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226164908.003.0006
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The previous chapter laid the foundation for the argument that the central controversy in the control of Victorian science education was not religion, but rather sectarianism and dogmatism. Closer ... More


“The Great O. versus the Jermyn St. Pet”: Huxley, Falconer, and Owen on Paleontological Method

Gowan Dawson

in Victorian Scientific Naturalism: Community, Identity, Continuity

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780226109503
eISBN:
9780226109640
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226109640.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter examines the paleontological dispute from 1856 to 1857 between Thomas Henry Huxley, Hugh Falconer, and Richard Owen, and its role in forging a sense of solidarity and community amongst ... More


The Uniformity of Natural Laws

Matthew Stanley

in Huxley's Church and Maxwell's Demon: From Theistic Science to Naturalistic Science

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226164878
eISBN:
9780226164908
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226164908.003.0003
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

One of the most basic elements of Victorian (and, indeed, modern) scientific practice was the expectation that nature functioned according to fixed laws, which never varied in time or place. This ... More


Practitioners Enter the Field Huxley and Ball as Popularizers

in Victorian Popularizers of Science: Designing Nature for New Audiences

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226481180
eISBN:
9780226481173
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226481173.003.0007
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter examines the works of the scientific practitioners Thomas Henry Huxley and Robert Ball, who became active popularizers of science only after the early 1870s, analyses the shift in ... More


Liberals and Socialists: The Politics of Evolution in Victorian England

Piers J. Hale

in Political Descent: Malthus, Mutualism, and the Politics of Evolution in Victorian England

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780226108490
eISBN:
9780226108520
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226108520.003.0004
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Liberals and socialists variously accommodated their politics to evolutionary ideas. While historians have noted that liberals embraced social Darwinist ideas to advance either individualist ... More


Religious Lives

Matthew Stanley

in Huxley's Church and Maxwell's Demon: From Theistic Science to Naturalistic Science

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226164878
eISBN:
9780226164908
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226164908.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This introductory chapter describes Maxwell’s and Huxley’s backgrounds, particularly the formation of their views on and experience with religion. It shows the variety of “religion” present in the ... More


Free Will and Natural Laws

Matthew Stanley

in Huxley's Church and Maxwell's Demon: From Theistic Science to Naturalistic Science

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226164878
eISBN:
9780226164908
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226164908.003.0007
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Naturalistic approaches to explaining the living world led to intense controversies over whether free will and consciousness could be explained away as illusions in a mechanistic brain. Huxley and ... More


The Limits of Science

Matthew Stanley

in Huxley's Church and Maxwell's Demon: From Theistic Science to Naturalistic Science

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226164878
eISBN:
9780226164908
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226164908.003.0004
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

One of the most contentious issues with which the emerging naturalism had to grapple was the question of what, if anything, was beyond science’s grasp. Both naturalists and theists accused each other ... More


The Great Debate

Larry A. Witham

in Where Darwin Meets the Bible: Creationists and Evolutionists in America

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195150452
eISBN:
9780199834860
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195150457.003.0013
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

Legendary public debates over evolution began with Thomas H. Huxley in 1860 and raged through the 1920s and 1970s to the present, featuring debaters such as biologists Kenneth Miller (pro‐evolution) ... More


The Goals of Science Education: The Working Men’s College

Matthew Stanley

in Huxley's Church and Maxwell's Demon: From Theistic Science to Naturalistic Science

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226164878
eISBN:
9780226164908
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226164908.003.0005
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The myth of inevitable conflict between science and religion grew out of a genuine battleground - the control of educational institutions in Britain. Huxley and the scientific naturalists were ... More


Correlation under Siege

Gowan Dawson

in Show Me the Bone: Reconstructing Prehistoric Monsters in Nineteenth-Century Britain and America

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780226332734
eISBN:
9780226332871
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226332871.003.0007
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter considers how Thomas Henry Huxley, beginning in the mid-1850s during the Crimean War, impugned the abilities of Cuvier, asserting that the ostensibly infallible law of physiological ... More


History, Biography, Autobiography

Paul Turner

in Victorian Poetry, Drama and Miscellaneous Prose 1832–1890

Published in print:
1990
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198122395
eISBN:
9780191671401
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198122395.003.0016
Subject:
Literature, 19th-century and Victorian Literature

This chapter explores several author’s history, biography, and autobiography. Authors’ lives are apt to be dull, and those who turn author only to tell the story of their lives are unlikely to write ... More


Science without God: Natural Laws and Christian Beliefs

Ronald L. Numbers

in Science and Christianity in Pulpit and Pew

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195320374
eISBN:
9780199851379
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195320374.003.0003
Subject:
Religion, History of Christianity

This chapter traces the history of what has come to be known as “methodological naturalism”, the bane of intelligent design advocates, who see it as an agent of atheism. Both Christians and skeptics, ... More


The Problems of Popularization

Gowan Dawson

in Show Me the Bone: Reconstructing Prehistoric Monsters in Nineteenth-Century Britain and America

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780226332734
eISBN:
9780226332871
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226332871.003.0008
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter shows that while Huxley won over the scientific community, he was less successful in persuading general audiences, who were instead more likely to listen to popularizers of science. The ... More


Poverty and the Ideal Self

Thomas Dixon

in The Invention of Altruism: Making Moral Meanings in Victorian Britain

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197264263
eISBN:
9780191734816
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264263.003.0007
Subject:
History, History of Ideas

The 1880s were the pivotal years in Victorian moral thought. A new wave of awareness of the plight of the urban poor was expressed in a range of both practical and intellectual activities. Some, such ... More


Unfortunate Allies

Gowan Dawson

in Show Me the Bone: Reconstructing Prehistoric Monsters in Nineteenth-Century Britain and America

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780226332734
eISBN:
9780226332871
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226332871.003.0009
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter explores how Robert Knox, the Edinburgh anatomist disgraced by the Burke and Hare murders, recommenced his prolonged campaign against the law of correlation in the mid-1850s, just as ... More


Prophecies of the Past

Gowan Dawson

in Show Me the Bone: Reconstructing Prehistoric Monsters in Nineteenth-Century Britain and America

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780226332734
eISBN:
9780226332871
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226332871.003.0011
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter explores how, amid the dramatic changes of the final years of the Victorian era, there was a notable revival of interest in Cuvierian correlation. Huxley finally stated his objections to ... More


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