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Darwin's Champions

Jan Sapp

in Genesis: The Evolution of Biology

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195156195
eISBN:
9780199790340
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195156195.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter focuses on champions of Darwin's evolutionary theory, the most prominent being Thomas Henry Huxley in the UK and Ernst Haeckel in Germany. Topics discussed include man's place in nature, ... More


‘A Solitude beyond the Reach of God or Man’: Victorian Agnostics and Death

Pat Jalland

in Death in the Victorian Family

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198201885
eISBN:
9780191675058
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198201885.003.0018
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History

The decline of Evangelicalism, the emergence of biblical criticisms, and the introduction of science in the latter part of the Victorian period created some agnostics views of death. This chapter ... More


Intellectual Freedom

Matthew Stanley

in Huxley's Church and Maxwell's Demon: From Theistic Science to Naturalistic Science

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226164878
eISBN:
9780226164908
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226164908.003.0006
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The previous chapter laid the foundation for the argument that the central controversy in the control of Victorian science education was not religion, but rather sectarianism and dogmatism. Closer ... More


Malthus or Mutualism?: Huxley, Kropotkin, and the Moral Meaning of Darwinism

Piers J. Hale

in Political Descent: Malthus, Mutualism, and the Politics of Evolution in Victorian England

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780226108490
eISBN:
9780226108520
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226108520.003.0005
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

In ‘The Struggle for Existence’ (1888) Huxley portrayed nature as a Malthusian gladiators arena in which only the strong survived. While this was the context from which humans had evolved, mankind ... More


“The Great O. versus the Jermyn St. Pet”: Huxley, Falconer, and Owen on Paleontological Method

Gowan Dawson

in Victorian Scientific Naturalism: Community, Identity, Continuity

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780226109503
eISBN:
9780226109640
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226109640.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter examines the paleontological dispute from 1856 to 1857 between Thomas Henry Huxley, Hugh Falconer, and Richard Owen, and its role in forging a sense of solidarity and community amongst ... More


Liberals and Socialists: The Politics of Evolution in Victorian England

Piers J. Hale

in Political Descent: Malthus, Mutualism, and the Politics of Evolution in Victorian England

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780226108490
eISBN:
9780226108520
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226108520.003.0004
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Liberals and socialists variously accommodated their politics to evolutionary ideas. While historians have noted that liberals embraced social Darwinist ideas to advance either individualist ... More


The Uniformity of Natural Laws

Matthew Stanley

in Huxley's Church and Maxwell's Demon: From Theistic Science to Naturalistic Science

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226164878
eISBN:
9780226164908
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226164908.003.0003
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

One of the most basic elements of Victorian (and, indeed, modern) scientific practice was the expectation that nature functioned according to fixed laws, which never varied in time or place. This ... More


Practitioners Enter the Field Huxley and Ball as Popularizers

in Victorian Popularizers of Science: Designing Nature for New Audiences

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226481180
eISBN:
9780226481173
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226481173.003.0007
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter examines the works of the scientific practitioners Thomas Henry Huxley and Robert Ball, who became active popularizers of science only after the early 1870s, analyses the shift in ... More


Religious Lives

Matthew Stanley

in Huxley's Church and Maxwell's Demon: From Theistic Science to Naturalistic Science

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226164878
eISBN:
9780226164908
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226164908.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This introductory chapter describes Maxwell’s and Huxley’s backgrounds, particularly the formation of their views on and experience with religion. It shows the variety of “religion” present in the ... More


Free Will and Natural Laws

Matthew Stanley

in Huxley's Church and Maxwell's Demon: From Theistic Science to Naturalistic Science

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226164878
eISBN:
9780226164908
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226164908.003.0007
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Naturalistic approaches to explaining the living world led to intense controversies over whether free will and consciousness could be explained away as illusions in a mechanistic brain. Huxley and ... More


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