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Access to Medicine as a Human Right in the WTO Order

Holger Hestermeyer

in Human Rights and the WTO: The Case of Patents and Access to Medicines

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199552177
eISBN:
9780191706936
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199552177.003.0005
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Public International Law

This chapter begins by discussing the extent to which human rights can be applied in WTO dispute settlement, finding that they can only be used as an aid to interpreting the ‘covered agreements’. It ... More


Patent Law

Holger Hestermeyer

in Human Rights and the WTO: The Case of Patents and Access to Medicines

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199552177
eISBN:
9780191706936
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199552177.003.0002
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Public International Law

This chapter describes the patent component of the conflict between the TRIPS Agreement and access to medicine. It provides the necessary background in patent law, its history, and rationales and ... More


Harmonization of Intellectual Property Rights

Junji Nakagawa

in International Harmonization of Economic Regulation

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199604661
eISBN:
9780191731679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199604661.003.0005
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

This chapter analyzes international harmonization of intellectual property rights, tracing its history from the Paris (1883) and Berne Conventions (1886) to the WIPO (World Intellectual Property ... More


Contours of an International Instrument on Limitations and Exceptions *

P. Bernt Hugenholtz and Ruth L. Okediji

in The Development Agenda: Global Intellectual Property and Developing Countries

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195342109
eISBN:
9780199866823
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195342109.003.0020
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

This chapter examines policy options and modalities for framing an international instrument on limitations and exceptions to copyright within the treaty obligations of the current international ... More


Trips 3.0: Policy Calibration and Innovation Displacement

Daniel J Gervais

in Developing Countries in the WTO Legal System

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195383614
eISBN:
9780199855445
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195383614.003.0014
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

This chapter considers the impact of the TRIPS Agreement on development, including how it can and should be measured. It then considers whether the medium- and long-term impact of TRIPS might be to ... More


Conflict between Patents and Access to Medicine

Holger Hestermeyer

in Human Rights and the WTO: The Case of Patents and Access to Medicines

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199552177
eISBN:
9780191706936
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199552177.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Public International Law

This chapter starts by demonstrating in economic terms that pharmaceutical patents result in higher prices in developing countries, thus constituting a barrier to access to medicine in those ... More


The WIPO Development Agenda in an Historical and Political Context

Pedro Roffe and Gina Vea

in The Development Agenda: Global Intellectual Property and Developing Countries

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195342109
eISBN:
9780199866823
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195342109.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

This chapter traces the chain of events and political debate surrounding the evolution of the international intellectual property (IP) architecture from the establishment of the Paris Convention in ... More


History Lessons for the WIPO Development Agenda

Ruth L. Okediji

in The Development Agenda: Global Intellectual Property and Developing Countries

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195342109
eISBN:
9780199866823
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195342109.003.0006
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

This chapter explores the technology-related focus of the IP-development linkage and outlines WIPO's role in the initial development paradigm, which prevailed from 1964 to 2004 when a proposal for a ... More


The ‘Rule of Reason’ and the Right to Health: Integrating Human Rights and Competition Principles in the Context of TRIPS

Frederick M Abbott

in Human Rights and International Trade

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199285822
eISBN:
9780191700378
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199285822.003.0015
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

This chapter looks at the manner in which human rights may affect the application of competition rules and principles in the context of the TRIPS Agreement. The analysis begins by observing that ... More


Expanding Patent Rights in Pharmaceuticals: The Linkage between Patents and Drug Registration

Carlos M. Correa

in The Development Agenda: Global Intellectual Property and Developing Countries

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195342109
eISBN:
9780199866823
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195342109.003.00011
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

In some developed countries, the patent owners' exclusive rights have been stretched by allowing them to block the marketing approval of competing pharmaceutical generic products. This creates a ... More


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