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Access to Medicine as a Human Right in the WTO Order

Holger Hestermeyer

in Human Rights and the WTO: The Case of Patents and Access to Medicines

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199552177
eISBN:
9780191706936
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199552177.003.0005
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Public International Law

This chapter begins by discussing the extent to which human rights can be applied in WTO dispute settlement, finding that they can only be used as an aid to interpreting the ‘covered agreements’. It ... More


Patent Law

Holger Hestermeyer

in Human Rights and the WTO: The Case of Patents and Access to Medicines

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199552177
eISBN:
9780191706936
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199552177.003.0002
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Public International Law

This chapter describes the patent component of the conflict between the TRIPS Agreement and access to medicine. It provides the necessary background in patent law, its history, and rationales and ... More


Harmonization of Intellectual Property Rights

Junji Nakagawa

in International Harmonization of Economic Regulation

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199604661
eISBN:
9780191731679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199604661.003.0005
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

This chapter analyzes international harmonization of intellectual property rights, tracing its history from the Paris (1883) and Berne Conventions (1886) to the WIPO (World Intellectual Property ... More


Contours of an International Instrument on Limitations and Exceptions *

P. Bernt Hugenholtz and Ruth L. Okediji

in The Development Agenda: Global Intellectual Property and Developing Countries

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195342109
eISBN:
9780199866823
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195342109.003.0020
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

This chapter examines policy options and modalities for framing an international instrument on limitations and exceptions to copyright within the treaty obligations of the current international ... More


Trips 3.0: Policy Calibration and Innovation Displacement

Daniel J Gervais

in Developing Countries in the WTO Legal System

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195383614
eISBN:
9780199855445
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195383614.003.0014
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

This chapter considers the impact of the TRIPS Agreement on development, including how it can and should be measured. It then considers whether the medium- and long-term impact of TRIPS might be to ... More


Conflict between Patents and Access to Medicine

Holger Hestermeyer

in Human Rights and the WTO: The Case of Patents and Access to Medicines

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199552177
eISBN:
9780191706936
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199552177.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Public International Law

This chapter starts by demonstrating in economic terms that pharmaceutical patents result in higher prices in developing countries, thus constituting a barrier to access to medicine in those ... More


The WIPO Development Agenda in an Historical and Political Context

Pedro Roffe and Gina Vea

in The Development Agenda: Global Intellectual Property and Developing Countries

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195342109
eISBN:
9780199866823
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195342109.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

This chapter traces the chain of events and political debate surrounding the evolution of the international intellectual property (IP) architecture from the establishment of the Paris Convention in ... More


History Lessons for the WIPO Development Agenda

Ruth L. Okediji

in The Development Agenda: Global Intellectual Property and Developing Countries

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195342109
eISBN:
9780199866823
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195342109.003.0006
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

This chapter explores the technology-related focus of the IP-development linkage and outlines WIPO's role in the initial development paradigm, which prevailed from 1964 to 2004 when a proposal for a ... More


The ‘Rule of Reason’ and the Right to Health: Integrating Human Rights and Competition Principles in the Context of TRIPS

Frederick M Abbott

in Human Rights and International Trade

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199285822
eISBN:
9780191700378
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199285822.003.0015
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

This chapter looks at the manner in which human rights may affect the application of competition rules and principles in the context of the TRIPS Agreement. The analysis begins by observing that ... More


Expanding Patent Rights in Pharmaceuticals: The Linkage between Patents and Drug Registration

Carlos M. Correa

in The Development Agenda: Global Intellectual Property and Developing Countries

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195342109
eISBN:
9780199866823
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195342109.003.00011
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

In some developed countries, the patent owners' exclusive rights have been stretched by allowing them to block the marketing approval of competing pharmaceutical generic products. This creates a ... More


The ICESCR in State Public Policy-making within the World Trade System

Diane A. Desierto

in Public Policy in International Economic Law: The ICESCR in Trade, Finance, and Investment

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780198716938
eISBN:
9780191785634
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198716938.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Public International Law, Company and Commercial Law

This chapter analyses the interaction of various political institutions and treaty gateways in the world trade system to maintain States’ regulatory freedoms to protect public policy objectives. It ... More


TRIPS and TRIPS-Plus Protection and Impacts in Latin America

Carlos M Correa

in Intellectual Property, Trade and Development

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2014
ISBN:
9780199684700
eISBN:
9780191767562
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199684700.003.0006
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

The adoption of a set of minimum binding standards for the protection of intellectual property rights (IPRs) in the context of the World Trade Organization (WTO) led to massive changes in the ... More


Multilateral Agreements and Policy Opportunities

Carlos M. Correa

in Intellectual Property Rights: Legal and Economic Challenges for Development

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780199660759
eISBN:
9780191749186
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199660759.003.0014
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic Systems

The multilateral rules on intellectual property rights set out by the TRIPS Agreement limit the WTO members’ room to use foreign protected technologies for local production. However, governments ... More


Human Rights and the WTO: The Case of Patents and Access to Medicines

Holger Hestermeyer

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199552177
eISBN:
9780191706936
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199552177.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Public International Law

This study examines the alleged conflict of WTO law with international human rights law, using a prominent example of such a conflict: that between international patent law, i.e., the TRIPS ... More


Background of the Debate

Holger Hestermeyer

in Human Rights and the WTO: The Case of Patents and Access to Medicines

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199552177
eISBN:
9780191706936
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199552177.003.0001
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Public International Law

This chapter discusses the facts that called attention to the conflict between the TRIPS Agreement and access to medicine. The public discussion was initially triggered by the pricing decision of the ... More


The Access Regime: Patent Law Reforms for Affordable Medicines

Feroz Ali

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2016
ISBN:
9780199463480
eISBN:
9780199086344
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199463480.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

India’s post-TRIPS (Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) patent law reforms, which incorporates a remarkable array of flexibilities is seen as a counter-harmonization measure in ... More


The WTO Appellate Body and the TRIPS Agreement

Daniel Gervais

in THE GLOBAL COMMUNITY YEARBOOK OF INTERNATIONAL LAW AND JURISPRUDENCE 2016

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780190848194
eISBN:
9780190848217
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190848194.003.0012
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

This contribution reviews the role of the World Trade Organization’s (WTO) Appellate Body—a part of its dispute-settlement mechanism—in interpreting the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of ... More


Intellectual Property as a Case Study in Europeanization: Methodological Themes and Context

Justine Pila

in The Europeanization of Intellectual Property Law: Towards a European Legal Methodology

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199665105
eISBN:
9780191758881
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199665105.003.0001
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

This chapter presents European intellectual property law as a case study in private law harmonisation. It first outlines the international legal framework, which consists of international agreements ... More


Surrender at Geneva

Prashant Reddy T. and Sumathi Chandrashekaran

in Create, Copy, Disrupt: India's Intellectual Property Dilemmas

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
March 2017
ISBN:
9780199470662
eISBN:
9780199088850
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199470662.003.0002
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

The Patents Act, 1970 and its virtual abolition of a pharmaceutical patent regime did not go unchallenged by the innovator pharmaceutical industry of the developed world. Starting in the mid-1980s, ... More


Not Just a Question of Capital: Health and Human Well-Being

Berta Esperanza Hernández-Truyol and Stephen Joseph Powell

in Just Trade: A New Covenant Linking Trade and Human Rights

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814736937
eISBN:
9780814790861
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814736937.003.0007
Subject:
Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law

This chapter examines the impact of trade on health and human well-being. In particular, it considers how members of the World Trade Organization (WTO) can address human rights that take into ... More


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