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Six Reasons for Invoking Evolution in Decision Theory

Peter Hammerstein and Jeffrey R. Stevens

in Evolution and the Mechanisms of Decision Making

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262018081
eISBN:
9780262306027
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262018081.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

How do organisms make decisions? The study of games and decisions has long been guided by a philosophical discourse on concepts of rationality and their implications. This discourse has led to a ... More


Animal Thinking: An Introduction

Randolf Menzel and Julia Fischer

in Animal Thinking: Contemporary Issues in Comparative Cognition

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262016636
eISBN:
9780262298988
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016636.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Since the advent of the cognitive revolution in the 1960s, animals have been viewed as goal-seeking agents that acquire, store, retrieve, and internally process information at many levels of ... More


Better Than Conscious?: Decision Making, the Human Mind, and Implications For Institutions

Christoph Engel and Wolf Singer (eds)

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262195805
eISBN:
9780262272353
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262195805.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Conscious control enables human decision makers to override routines, to exercise willpower, to find innovative solutions, to learn by instruction, to decide collectively, and to justify their ... More


The Cultural Nature of Attachment: Contextualizing Relationships and Development

Heidi Keller and Kim A. Bard (eds)

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780262036900
eISBN:
9780262342872
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036900.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

It is generally acknowledged that attachment relationships are important for infants and young children, but there is little clarity on what exactly constitutes such a relationship. Does it occur ... More


Building a Foundation for Cognitive Search

Peter M. Todd, Thomas T. Hills, and Trevor W. Robbins

in Cognitive Search: Evolution, Algorithms, and the Brain

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262018098
eISBN:
9780262306003
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262018098.003.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Social Psychology and Interaction

Search is a common and crucial behavior for most organisms. It requires individuals to achieve an adaptive trade-off between exploration for new resources distributed in space or time and ... More


Translational Neuroscience: Toward New Therapies

Karoly Nikolich and Steven E. Hyman (eds)

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780262029865
eISBN:
9780262329859
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029865.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Research and Theory

Translational neuroscience faces considerable challenges, as available therapies to treat brain and nervous system disorders are extremely limited and dated. Drug efficacy for depression, anxiety, ... More


Investors and Exploiters in Ecology and Economics: Principles and Applications

Luc-Alain Giraldeau, Philipp Heeb, and Michael Kosfeld (eds)

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780262036122
eISBN:
9780262339803
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036122.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought

In the natural world, some agents (investors) employ strategies that provide resources, services, or information while others (exploiters) achieve gain through these efforts. Such behavior coexists ... More


Complexity and Evolution: Toward a New Synthesis for Economics

David S Wilson and Alan Kirman (eds)

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780262035385
eISBN:
9780262337717
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262035385.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought

Two widely heralded yet contested approaches to economics have emerged in recent years. One follows an older, rather neglected approach which emphasizes evolutionary theory in terms of individuals ... More


Reporting of Research: Are We in for Better Health Care by 2020?

Holger Schünemann, Davina Ghersi, Julia Kreis, Gerd Antes, and Jean Bousquet

in Better Doctors, Better Patients, Better Decisions: Envisioning Health Care 2020

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262016032
eISBN:
9780262298957
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016032.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Health Psychology

Logical arguments support the view that complete, transparent, and objective reporting of research results avoids systematic error, misinformation, and unrealistic expectations. Evidence about ... More


Cognitive Search: Evolution, Algorithms, and the Brain

Peter M. Todd, Thomas T. Hills, and Trevor W. Robbins (eds)

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262018098
eISBN:
9780262306003
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262018098.001.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Social Psychology and Interaction

Over a century ago, William James proposed that people search through memory much as they rummage through a house looking for lost keys. Like other animal species search space, we scour our ... More


Introduction

Luc-Alain Giraldeau and Michael Kosfeld

in Investors and Exploiters in Ecology and Economics: Principles and Applications

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780262036122
eISBN:
9780262339803
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036122.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought

Why do some individuals invest in making a resource available, while others simply wait and exploit the fruits of this effort? Why do some people cooperate in joint production and public goods ... More


Search Environments, Representation, and Encoding

Lael J. Schooler, Curt Burgess, Robert L. Goldstone, Wai-Tat Fu, Sergey Gavrilets, David Lazer, James A. R. Marshall, Frank Neumann, and Jan M. Wiener

in Cognitive Search: Evolution, Algorithms, and the Brain

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262018098
eISBN:
9780262306003
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262018098.003.0020
Subject:
Sociology, Social Psychology and Interaction

This chapter explores the benefits of restructuring search spaces and internal representations so as to make search more efficient. It begins by providing a formal definition of search, and proposes ... More


The Neurobiology of Individual Decision Making, Dualism, and Legal Accountability

Paul W. Glimcher

in Better Than Conscious?: Decision Making, the Human Mind, and Implications For Institutions

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262195805
eISBN:
9780262272353
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262195805.003.0016
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

There has been an increasing interest in neurobiological analyses of the causes of behavior among many practitioners of criminal law. In some institutional circles this has crystallized as an ... More


How Will Health Care Professionals and Patients Work Together in 2020?: A Manifesto for Change

Ralph Hertwig, Heather Buchan, David A. Davis, Wolfgang Gaissmaier, Martin Härter, Kai Kolpatzik, France Légaré, Norbert Schmacke, and Holger Wormer

in Better Doctors, Better Patients, Better Decisions: Envisioning Health Care 2020

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262016032
eISBN:
9780262298957
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016032.003.0019
Subject:
Psychology, Health Psychology

This report calls for a change in health care, while acknowledging that health care systems are highly complex systems for which there is no simple solution. The starting premise is that one needs to ... More


Model-Based Reinforcement Learning as Cognitive Search: Neurocomputational Theories

Nathaniel D. Daw

in Cognitive Search: Evolution, Algorithms, and the Brain

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262018098
eISBN:
9780262306003
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262018098.003.0012
Subject:
Sociology, Social Psychology and Interaction

One oft-envisioned function of search is planning actions (e.g., by exploring routes through a cognitive map). Yet, among the most prominent and quantitatively successful neuroscentific theories of ... More


Foundations of Search: A Perspective from Computer Science

James A. R. Marshall and Frank Neumann

in Cognitive Search: Evolution, Algorithms, and the Brain

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262018098
eISBN:
9780262306003
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262018098.003.0016
Subject:
Sociology, Social Psychology and Interaction

Since Alan Turing, computer scientists have been interested in understanding natural intelligence by reproducing it in machine form. The field of artificial intelligence is characterized, to a large ... More


The Evolution of Cognitive Search

Thomas T. Hills and Reuven Dukas

in Cognitive Search: Evolution, Algorithms, and the Brain

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262018098
eISBN:
9780262306003
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262018098.003.0002
Subject:
Sociology, Social Psychology and Interaction

Search can be defined as an attempt to arrive at a goal at an unknown location in the physical environment, as well as in time, memory, or any other space. Search is necessary because the quantity ... More


Problem Solving and Search in Networks

David Lazer and Ethan S. Bernstein

in Cognitive Search: Evolution, Algorithms, and the Brain

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262018098
eISBN:
9780262306003
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262018098.003.0017
Subject:
Sociology, Social Psychology and Interaction

This chapter examines the role that networks play in facilitating or inhibiting search for solutions to problems at both the individual and collective levels. At the individual level, search in ... More


From Plato to the World Wide Web: Information Foraging on the Internet

Wai-Tat Fu

in Cognitive Search: Evolution, Algorithms, and the Brain

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262018098
eISBN:
9780262306003
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262018098.003.0018
Subject:
Sociology, Social Psychology and Interaction

Generally speaking, two conditions make cognitive search possible: (a) symbolic structures must be present in the environment and (b) these structures must be detectable by a searcher, whose behavior ... More


Optimal Strategies and Heuristics for Ecological Search Problems

John M. McNamara and Tim W. Fawcett

in Cognitive Search: Evolution, Algorithms, and the Brain

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262018098
eISBN:
9780262306003
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262018098.003.0019
Subject:
Sociology, Social Psychology and Interaction

All animals, including humans, search for a variety of different things in their natural environment, from food to mates to a suitable place to live. Most types of search can be represented as ... More


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