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 Possessors of the Command

Shafique N. Virani

in The Ismailis in the Middle Ages: A History of Survival, a Search for Salvation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780195311730
eISBN:
9780199785490
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195311730.003.0006
Subject:
Religion, Islam

In Shi'i Islam, the Imams are considered to be the Possessors of the Command (ulu al-amr), and are the purveyors of divine authority in the world. The chapter speaks of the Ismaili Imams, Islamshah ... More


“Securing” Islam in a Time of Turbulence

Joseph Chinyong Liow

in Piety and Politics: Islamism in Contemporary Malaysia

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195377088
eISBN:
9780199869527
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195377088.003.0006
Subject:
Religion, Islam

This chapter explores expressions of Muslim militancy and extremism as they have emerged in Malaysia. While small in numbers and increasingly enervated as an ideology, militant extremism is ... More


After Civil War: Bosnia and Herzegovina, El Salvador, and Lebanon

Zoltan Barany

in The Soldier and the Changing State: Building Democratic Armies in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691137681
eISBN:
9781400845491
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691137681.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

This chapter looks at the army building in three very different political environments: the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Lebanese civil war (1975–90), and the civil war in El Salvador ... More


Inclusion and Stability in a Populist Autocracy

Sean L. Yom

in From Resilience to Revolution: How Foreign Interventions Destabilize the Middle East

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780231175647
eISBN:
9780231540278
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231175647.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, Middle Eastern Politics

This chapter traces the institutional consequences of Kuwait’s coalitional strategy upon national development, revealing how new economic and political institutions after the 1950s kept the Sabah ... More


The Rise and Decline of Environmentalism in Lebanon

Karim Makdisi

in Water on Sand: Environmental Histories of the Middle East and North Africa

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199768677
eISBN:
9780199979608
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199768677.003.0009
Subject:
History, Middle East History

This chapter explores the evolution of environmentalism in Lebanon in the period since its independence in 1943. It contends that two main strands of environmentalism, challenging various aspects of ... More


Sectarian Politics in the Gulf: From the Iraq War to the Arab Uprisings

Frederic Wehrey

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231165129
eISBN:
9780231536103
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231165129.001.0001
Subject:
History, Middle East History

Beginning with the 2003 invasion of Iraq and concluding with the aftermath of the 2011 Arab uprisings, this book investigates the roots of the Shi'a–Sunni divide now dominating the Persian Gulf's ... More


Nothing Left to Lose: Women in Prison

Lizette Potgieter

in Land of the Unconquerable: The Lives of Contemporary Afghan Women

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780520261853
eISBN:
9780520948990
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520261853.003.0009
Subject:
Anthropology, Middle Eastern Cultural Anthropology

This chapter shows that the Shi'a Family Law formalizes many injustices to which women are persistently subjected and for which they are imprisoned. All women prisoners were moved from the notorious ... More


The New Sectarianism: The Arab Uprisings and the Rebirth of the Shi'a-Sunni Divide

Geneive Abdo

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2016
ISBN:
9780190233143
eISBN:
9780190233174
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190233143.001.0001
Subject:
Religion, Islam

The Shi’a–Sunni conflict is one of the most significant outcomes arising from the Arab rebellions. Yet, there is little understanding of who is driving this tension and the underlying causes. By ... More


Iraqi women in Denmark: Ritual performance and belonging in everyday life

Marianne Holm Pedersen

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780719089589
eISBN:
9781781706930
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719089589.001.0001
Subject:
Anthropology, Anthropology, Global

Iraqi women in Denmark is an ethnographic study of ritual performance and place-making among Shi‘a Muslim Iraqi women in Copenhagen. The book explores how Iraqi women construct a sense of belonging ... More


Religious Minorities and the Anxieties of an Islamic Identity

Muhammad Qasim Zaman

in Islam in Pakistan: A History

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780691149226
eISBN:
9781400889747
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691149226.003.0006
Subject:
Religion, Islam

This chapter focuses on two Muslim minorities, the Ahmadis and the Shi`a, and some of the contestations around their position in the state. How these communities have fared in Pakistan is part of the ... More


Far More Dangerous Times

Joanne Randa Nucho

in Everyday Sectarianism in Urban Lebanon: Infrastructures, Public Services, and Power

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780691168968
eISBN:
9781400883004
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691168968.003.0006
Subject:
Anthropology, Middle Eastern Cultural Anthropology

This concluding chapter begins by summarizing the arguments in the preceding chapters. It then attempts to contextualize the present discourse about the Shi'a versus Sunni conflict within the region ... More


Gender, Sainthood, & Everyday Practice in South Asian Shiʿism

Karen G. Ruffle

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
July 2014
ISBN:
9780807834756
eISBN:
9781469602981
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/9780807877975_ruffle
Subject:
Religion, Islam

This study of devotional hagiographical texts and contemporary ritual performances of the Shi'a of Hyderabad, India demonstrates how traditions of sainthood and localized cultural values shape gender ... More


The Theological Convictions of the Saudi ‘Ulamā’ toward Shī‘īsm

Raihan Ismail

in Saudi Clerics and Shī‘a Islam

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780190233310
eISBN:
9780190233334
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190233310.003.0004
Subject:
Religion, Islam

This chapter examines the attitudes of the Saudi ‘ulamā’ toward Shī‘a theology, looking at the sermons, fatāwā, publications, and lectures of the Saudi ‘ulamā’. The chapter canvasses the views of ... More


Indirect Power Projection and Ideational Balancing after Khomeini

Lawrence Rubin

in Islam in the Balance: Ideational Threats in Arab Politics

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780804790796
eISBN:
9780804792103
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804790796.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter examines Saudi Arabia and Egypt's threat perception and policies of this type of ideational threat during the 1990s and 2000s. This chapter shows that ideational power can threaten ... More


Iraqi Divisions

Ala Hamoudi Haider

in Negotiating in Civil Conflict: Constitutional Construction and Imperfect Bargaining in Iraq

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780226315348
eISBN:
9780226068794
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226068794.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter describes the nature of the divisions between the major groups in Iraqi society. It shows how these disparate communities— Sunni, Shi’a and Kurd— not only contested political power ... More


How Green Can Become Red

Gareth Doherty

in Paradoxes of Green: Landscapes of a City-State

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780520285019
eISBN:
9780520960626
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520285019.003.0004
Subject:
Anthropology, Middle Eastern Cultural Anthropology

This chapter talks about the significance of red (the Bahraini national color) and green (color of Islam). In Bahrain, as well as Iran, green and red are highly politicized colors. Red is often a ... More


Religious Secularity: Shiite Repudiation of the Islamic State

Naser Ghobadzadeh

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2014
ISBN:
9780199391172
eISBN:
9780199391196
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199391172.001.0001
Subject:
Religion, Islam, Religion and Society

In the latter decades of the 20th century, secularism and Muslim politics appeared to be on a collision course. Although 9/11 arguably marked the peak of militant Islam, it also spurred many Muslims ... More


<i>Tabut</i>: A Shi’a Ritual Transplanted from India to Minangkabau’s North Coast

Margaret Kartomi

in Musical Journeys in Sumatra

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252036712
eISBN:
9780252093821
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252036712.003.0004
Subject:
Music, Ethnomusicology, World Music

This chapter examines an elaborate Shi'a mourning festival of music and spectacle of Persian and Indian origins known as tabut, which was transplanted, probably more than three centuries ago, from ... More


Governance, Society, and Identity in the Gulf

Frederic M. Wehrey

in Sectarian Politics in the Gulf: From the Iraq War to the Arab Uprisings

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231165129
eISBN:
9780231536103
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231165129.003.0001
Subject:
History, Middle East History

This chapter examines how Shi'a and Sunni identities have historically interacted with other forms of social and political affiliation in the Persian Gulf. Because of their Shi'a populations, ... More


The Long Shadow of the Iranian Revolution

Frederic M. Wehrey

in Sectarian Politics in the Gulf: From the Iraq War to the Arab Uprisings

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231165129
eISBN:
9780231536103
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231165129.003.0002
Subject:
History, Middle East History

This chapter examines the seminal impact of the Iranian Revolution on Persian Gulf societies in general and on Shi'a–Sunni relations in particular in the post-2003 era. A seismic event in Gulf ... More


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