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Essentialism, Semantic Theory, and Natural Kinds

Penelope Mackie

in How Things Might Have Been: Individuals, Kinds, and Essential Properties

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199272204
eISBN:
9780191604034
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199272204.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Following Nathan Salmon and D. H. Mellor, this chapter argues that natural kind essentialism of the type advocated by Kripke and Putnam is not an inevitable consequence of the adoption of an ... More


Origin Properties and Individual Essences

Penelope Mackie

in How Things Might Have Been: Individuals, Kinds, and Essential Properties

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199272204
eISBN:
9780191604034
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199272204.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Graeme Forbes has argued that many ordinary persisting things (including people, animals, and plants) can be attributed non-trivial individual essences that include distinctive features of their ... More


Analogy and Symmetry

Paul F. A. Bartha

in By Parallel Reasoning: The Construction and Evaluation of Analogical Arguments

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195325539
eISBN:
9780199776313
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195325539.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter has two purposes. First, it explores the connection between analogical reasoning and symmetry to provide a second justification for the argument form, independent of the one offered in ... More


Roads Not Taken

R. M. Sainsbury and Michael Tye

in Seven Puzzles of Thought and How to Solve Them: And How to Solve Them: An Originalist Theory of Concepts

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199695317
eISBN:
9780191738531
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199695317.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Language

This chapter reviews some theories we do not adopt: two versions of Fregeanism, and two versions of Millianism.


Union Finance and Diplomacy, 1861–1865

Jay Sexton

in Debtor Diplomacy: Finance and American Foreign Relations in the Civil War Era 1837-1873

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199281039
eISBN:
9780191712753
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199281039.003.0003
Subject:
History, American History: 19th Century

This chapter presents the twofold international objectives of the Union: to obtain financial and material support abroad while blocking European powers from recognizing and assisting the Confederacy. ... More


Causal Relevance and Manipulation

Carl F. Craver

in Explaining the Brain

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199299317
eISBN:
9780191715075
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199299317.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

This chapter presents a view of causal relevance that accommodates the mechanistic fragility and historical contingency of neuroscientific generalizations but that nonetheless satisfies constraints ... More


Karaite Commentaries on the Song of Songs from Tenth-Century Jerusalem

Frank Daniel

in With Reverence for the Word: Medieval Scriptural Exegesis in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195137279
eISBN:
9780199849482
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195137279.003.0004
Subject:
Religion, World Religions

For both Jews and Christians, the Song of Songs posed a special problem. If its Solomonic authorship assured its scriptural standing, its frank eroticism demanded allegorization. In its depiction of ... More


Indefinite Identities

André Gallois

in Occasions of Identity: A Study in the Metaphysics of Persistence, Change, and Sameness

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199261833
eISBN:
9780191698798
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199261833.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter discusses the indefinite identity problem posed by the ship of Theseus puzzle. It provides an alternative solution to the puzzle that will prove that the ORIGINAL is identical with the ... More


Statistical Explanation

L. Jonathan Cohen

in The Probable and The Provable

Published in print:
1977
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198244127
eISBN:
9780191680748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198244127.003.0022
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

This chapter starts by presenting Hempel's account of statistical explanation. Hempel proposed to deal with the problem of epistemic ambiguity in statistical explanation by a requirement of maximal ... More


Vagueness

Katherine Hawley

in How Things Persist

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199275434
eISBN:
9780191699818
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199275434.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Being familiar with an object or a place can be given empirical investigation on the vague changes that are occurring, especially in the case of not entirely knowing how a restaurant transformed. ... More


Non-Conditional Disputations

Terence Parsons

in Indeterminate Identity: Metaphysics and Semantics

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198250449
eISBN:
9780191681301
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198250449.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Language

This chapter discusses a number of attempts to prove that there can be no such thing as indeterminate identity. The arguments discussed here are limited to ones that do not turn on the logic or ... More


Informativeness

Michael Morris

in The Good and the True

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198239444
eISBN:
9780191679919
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198239444.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Moral Philosophy

This chapter posits that if a metaphysical explanation is to be informative, the sentence which provides it must differ in informativeness from the sentence which gave the original description of the ... More


Alternative Models of Scientific Explanation

Wesley C. Salmon and Merrilee H. Salmon

in Causality and Explanation

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195108644
eISBN:
9780199833627
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195108647.003.0022
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Coauthored with Merrilee Salmon, addresses archaeologists and other anthropologists interested in the nature of scientific explanation. A group called the new archaeologists, concerned to assure the ... More


Evidence for Molecules: Jean Perrin and Molecular Reality

Peter Achinstein

in The Book of Evidence

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195143898
eISBN:
9780199833023
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195143892.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Jean Perrin's argument for the existence of molecules on the basis of his 1908 experiments with Brownian motion is examined. Various interpretations of that argument, including hypothetico‐deductive, ... More


Cross-Dressing in the Birth Room: Gender Trouble and Cultural Boundaries

David. Cressy

in Travesties and Transgressions in Tudor and Stuart England: Tales of Discord and Dissension

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780198207818
eISBN:
9780191677809
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198207818.003.0008
Subject:
History, British and Irish Early Modern History, Cultural History

This chapter starts with the extraordinary case from 1633 of a young male servant discovered in female disguise in a gender-segregated environment, the birth room. The midwife, her daughter, and the ... More


Vague Identity (1988)

Robert C. Stalnaker

in Ways a World Might Be: Metaphysical and Anti-Metaphysical Essays

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
April 2005
ISBN:
9780199251483
eISBN:
9780191602320
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199251487.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Nathan Salmon has argued that the identity relation cannot be vague nor semantically indeterminate. Although this is a sound argument, what this shows may be misleading, particularly about identity ... More


Rigidity – Associated Arguments in Support of Theoretical Identity Statements: on their Significance and the Cost of their Philosophical Resources

LaPorte Joseph

in Rigid Designation and Theoretical Identities

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199609208
eISBN:
9780191745027
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199609208.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Language

This chapter argues that arguments making use of rigidity to support theoretical identity statements like ‘water = H2O’ are significant if convincing and that they are convincing. The arguments enjoy ... More


The Treasury's Part in Confiscation

John Syrett

in The Civil War Confiscation Acts: Failing to Reconstruct the South

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780823224890
eISBN:
9780823240852
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823224890.003.0007
Subject:
History, American History: 19th Century

The Secretary of the Treasury, Salmon P. Chase, had the greatest anti-slavery and radical reputation of the men Lincoln chose for the Cabinet. The first indication of Chase's cautious attitude toward ... More


The Money War

John Kenneth Galbraith and James K. Galbraith

in Money: Whence It Came, Where It Went

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780691171661
eISBN:
9781400889082
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691171661.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

This chapter examines the controversies surrounding money and banking in the early years of the new American Republic. It shows how the U.S. Constitution restricted the right of coinage to the ... More


The Trial of Jefferson Davis and the Americanization of Treason Law

Jonathan W. White

in Constitutionalism in the Approach and Aftermath of the Civil War

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780823251940
eISBN:
9780823253012
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823251940.003.0006
Subject:
History, American History: 19th Century

When the Civil War came to a close, federal authorities had to determine what to do with captured Confederate president Jefferson Davis. After weighing the options of a military trial or some other ... More


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