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The Problem of Coordination

Bas C. van Fraassen

in Scientific Representation: Paradoxes of Perspective

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199278220
eISBN:
9780191707926
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199278220.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

The term ‘problem of coordination’ had appeared in Mach's writings on mechanics and thermodynamics; was salient in the discussion of the relation between mathematical and physical geometry that ... More


Tense in Sentential Complements and the Perfect Tenses

Ernest Lepore and Kirk Ludwig

in Donald Davidson's Truth-Theoretic Semantics

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199290932
eISBN:
9780191710445
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199290932.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

This chapter takes up two topics on tense. The first is the interaction of tenses in the main and subordinate clauses of indirect discourse sentences and propositional attitude sentences, and the ... More


General Covariance and the “Relativized A Priori”: Two Roads from Kant

Thomas Ryckman

in The Reign of Relativity: Philosophy in Physics 1915-1925

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
April 2005
ISBN:
9780195177176
eISBN:
9780199835324
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195177177.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

A tension within Kant’s Transcendental Analytic, regarding the combination of the “active” faculty of understanding with the “passive” faculty of sensibility, underlies the distinct appraisals in ... More


Einstein Agonists: Weyl and Reichenbach

Thomas Ryckman

in The Reign of Relativity: Philosophy in Physics 1915-1925

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
April 2005
ISBN:
9780195177176
eISBN:
9780199835324
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195177177.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Hermann Weyl and Hans Reichenbach stood on opposite sides in a debate that ostensibly turned on whether rigid rods and ideal clocks do or should play an epistemologically fundamental role in GTR. ... More


Precursors of Tense-Logic

Arthur Prior

in Past, Present and Future

Published in print:
1967
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198243113
eISBN:
9780191680632
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198243113.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter begins with a discussion of the early history of the discipline now widely called ‘tense-logic’. Topics covered include McTaggart's A- and B-series, McTaggart's argument against the ... More


How to Get Causes from Probabilities

Nancy Cartwright

in Nature's Capacities and Their Measurement

Published in print:
1994
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198235071
eISBN:
9780191597169
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198235070.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

In the context of linear causal systems, ‘How to Get Causes from Probabilities’ shows that given correct background information about other causal facts, certain probabilistic relations (like ... More


Arguments Concerning Scientific Realism

Bas C. van Fraassen

in The Scientific Image

Published in print:
1980
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198244271
eISBN:
9780191597473
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198244274.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter examines and criticizes the main arguments offered for scientific realism, here identified as the following view: Science aims to give us, in its theories, a literally true story of what ... More


The Empirical Basis of Quantum Theory

Bas C. van Fraassen

in Quantum Mechanics: An Empiricist View

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198239802
eISBN:
9780191597466
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198239807.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

If the world is not deterministic, then at the very least, some individual events just happen ’by chance’. But the frequency of such events and correlations between them could be subject to ... More


Realism in Methodology

Ilkka Niiniluoto

in Critical Scientific Realism

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199251612
eISBN:
9780191598098
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199251614.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Methodological realism accepts the axiological view that truth is one of the essential aims of science. Following Popper and Levi, truthlikeness as the aim of science, combines the goals of truth and ... More


What Are Laws of Nature?

Bas C. van Fraassen

in Laws and Symmetry

Published in print:
1989
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198248606
eISBN:
9780191597459
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198248601.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter concentrates on isolating criteria of adequacy for any philosophical account of what laws of nature are. Sources include David Hume, Charles Sanders Peirce, Hans Reichenbach, Donald ... More


Hans Reichenbach: Realist and Verificationist

Hilary Putnam

in Future Pasts: The Analytic Tradition in Twentieth Century Philosophy

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195139167
eISBN:
9780199833214
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019513916X.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

By focusing on Reichenbach’s 1938 Experience and Prediction, Putnam argues against the claim that logical positivism represented a unified ideological viewpoint. It is a vast oversimplification, ... More


On the Importance of Causal Taxonomy

Christopher Hitchcock

in Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195176803
eISBN:
9780199958511
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195176803.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Using a standard counterexample to probabilistic theories of causation as an illustration, this chapter argues that there are a number of questions which one might ask about a putative causal ... More


Causal completeness of probability theories — Results and open problems

Miklós Rédei and Balázs Gyenis

in Causality in the Sciences

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199574131
eISBN:
9780191728921
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199574131.003.0025
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

A classical (Kolmogorovian) probability measure space is defined to be causally closed with respect to a causal independence relation between pairs of random events if the probability space contains ... More


Philosophical Debates on General Relativity

Hanoch Gutfreund and Jürgen Renn

in The Formative Years of Relativity: The History and Meaning of Einstein's Princeton Lectures

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780691174631
eISBN:
9781400888689
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691174631.003.0010
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

This chapter addresses the philosophical debate surrounding general relativity in its formative period, from Einstein's own writings on methodological and epistemological aspects of the theory to the ... More


Reductionism as the Favored Form of Naturalism

John McCumber

in The Philosophy Scare: The Politics of Reason in the Early Cold War

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780226396385
eISBN:
9780226396415
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226396415.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter begins by sketching the approaches present in American philosophy, and at UCLA, as the Cold War began: idealism, pragmatism, materialism, and logical positivism/empiricism. Idealism and ... More


Reasoning Defeasibly about Probabilities

John L. Pollock

in Knowledge and Skepticism

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262014083
eISBN:
9780262265782
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262014083.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter discusses the often-acknowledged notion that, for practical decision-making, definite probabilities are required instead of indefinite ones. Theories that take indefinite probabilities ... More


On Epistemic Entitlement (II): Welfare State Epistemology*

Crispin Wright

in Scepticism and Perceptual Justification

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
June 2014
ISBN:
9780199658343
eISBN:
9780191760983
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199658343.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Entitlement, as here understood, is a kind of rational ground to accept a proposition that consists neither in the possession of evidence for its truth, nor in the occurrence of any kind of cognitive ... More


Causal images of time

George Jaroszkiewicz

in Images of Time: Mind, Science, Reality

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780198718062
eISBN:
9780191787553
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198718062.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter discusses notions of causality, determinism, blame, teleology, and chaos, looking at views from Antiquity to recent times. It reviews the comments of Leibniz, Locke, and Mill on ... More


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