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Evolution and the Levels of Selection

Samir Okasha

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199267972
eISBN:
9780191708275
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199267972.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Does natural selection act primarily on individual organisms, on groups, on genes, or on whole species? This book provides a comprehensive analysis of the long-standing controversy in evolutionary ... More


Pricing Decisions in the Euro Area: How Firms Set Prices and Why

Silvia Fabiani, Claire Suzanne Loupias, Fernando Manuel Monteiro Martins, and Roberto Sabbatini (eds)

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195309287
eISBN:
9780199783939
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195309287.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

Theoretical research undertaken over the last decades showed that the nature of nominal rigidities plays a key role in determining the effects of different shocks on the economy. This research has ... More


Natural Selection in the Abstract

Samir Okasha

in Evolution and the Levels of Selection

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199267972
eISBN:
9780191708275
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199267972.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter studies the logic of evolution by natural selection and the origin of the levels of selection question. The abstract nature of the core Darwinian principles, and thus their potential ... More


Selection at Multiple Levels: Concepts and Methods

Samir Okasha

in Evolution and the Levels of Selection

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199267972
eISBN:
9780191708275
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199267972.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter develops an abstract framework for thinking about selection acting at multiple hierarchical levels. The nature of hierarchical organization is analyzed, in particular the idea that ... More


Causality and Multi‐Level Selection

Samir Okasha

in Evolution and the Levels of Selection

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199267972
eISBN:
9780191708275
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199267972.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter analyzes the causal dimension to multi-level selection theory. Particular attention is paid to the idea that direct selection at one hierarchical level may generate, as a side effect, a ... More


The Price Equation

James A.R. Marshall

in Social Evolution and Inclusive Fitness Theory: An Introduction

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161563
eISBN:
9781400866564
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161563.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter considers a general description of natural selection: the Price equation. Developed by George Price in the late 1960s, the Price equation can be applied to the change of any quantity ... More


The Practical Turn: Pragmatism in Britain in the Long Twentieth Century

Cheryl Misak and Huw Price (eds)

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780197266168
eISBN:
9780191865237
Item type:
book
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197266168.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, General

The pragmatist approach to philosophical problems focuses on the role of disputed notions—for example, truth, value, causation, probability, necessity—in our practices. The insight at the heart of ... More


The Use of Survey Data to Investigate Price Setting: Theory and the Research Design for the Euro Area

Stephen G. Cecchetti, Fernando Martins, Roberto Sabbatini, and Harald Stahl

in Pricing Decisions in the Euro Area: How Firms Set Prices and Why

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195309287
eISBN:
9780199783939
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195309287.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This chapter reviews the main theoretical aspects of firms' price setting behavior analyzed in the national studies surveyed in the book. It deals with the determinants of prices, the characteristics ... More


Price Reactions to Demand and Cost Shocks: Survey Evidence from Austrian Firms

Claudia Kwapil, Josef Baumgartner, and Johann Scharler

in Pricing Decisions in the Euro Area: How Firms Set Prices and Why

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195309287
eISBN:
9780199783939
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195309287.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This chapter investigates price rigidity after cost and demand shocks in Austria. We find that the average time lag between a shock and the price adjustment is four to six months. Furthermore, firms' ... More


How Portuguese Firms Set Their Prices: Evidence from Survey Data

Fernando Martins

in Pricing Decisions in the Euro Area: How Firms Set Prices and Why

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195309287
eISBN:
9780199783939
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195309287.003.0011
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

In this chapter, price stickiness in Portugal is analyzed on the basis of qualitative data coming from a survey conducted by the Banco de Portugal. The main conclusions are the following. First, ... More


The Pricing Behavior of Spanish Firms

Luis J. Álvarez and Ignacio Hernando

in Pricing Decisions in the Euro Area: How Firms Set Prices and Why

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195309287
eISBN:
9780199783939
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195309287.003.0012
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This chapter reports the results of a survey carried out by the Banco de España on a sample of around 2,000 Spanish firms to deepen the understanding of firms' price setting behaviour. Most firms are ... More


Competition and Price Adjustment in the Euro Area

Luis J. Álvarez and Ignacio Hernando

in Pricing Decisions in the Euro Area: How Firms Set Prices and Why

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195309287
eISBN:
9780199783939
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195309287.003.0014
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This chapter explores the role of a number of factors, in particular the intensity of market competition, in explaining the heterogeneity in the degree of price stickiness across industries, on the ... More


What Quantitative Micro Data Reveal about Price Setting Behavior

Roberto Sabbatini, Luis J. Álvarez, Emmanuel Dhyne, Marco Hoeberichts, Hervé Le Bihan, Patrick Lünnemann, Fernando Martins, Fabio Rumler, Harald Stahl, Philip Vermeulen, Giovanni Veronese, and Jouko Vilmunen

in Pricing Decisions in the Euro Area: How Firms Set Prices and Why

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195309287
eISBN:
9780199783939
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195309287.003.0015
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This chapter summarizes the vast evidence on price setting based on micro consumer and producer price data obtained for euro area countries. This analysis captures features of price behavior that ... More


Policy Lessons and Directions for Ongoing Research

Vítor Gaspar, Andrew Levin, Fernando Martins, and Frank Smets

in Pricing Decisions in the Euro Area: How Firms Set Prices and Why

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195309287
eISBN:
9780199783939
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195309287.003.0016
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

Understanding the features and the determinants of individual price setting behavior is important for the formulation of monetary policy. These behavioral mechanisms play a fundamental role in ... More


Inclusive Fitness and Hamilton’s Rule

James A.R. Marshall

in Social Evolution and Inclusive Fitness Theory: An Introduction

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161563
eISBN:
9781400866564
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161563.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter examines how the logic of inclusive fitness theory can be mathematically formalized using the Price equation, and how that formalization can be used to derive Hamilton's rule in its ... More


Nonadditive Interactions and Hamilton’s Rule

James A.R. Marshall

in Social Evolution and Inclusive Fitness Theory: An Introduction

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161563
eISBN:
9781400866564
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161563.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter examines what happens in nonadditive interactions when such interactions take place between relatives, and how Hamilton's rule can be extended in two different ways to accommodate such ... More


From Document to Monument: Inscribing Roman Official Documents in the Greek East

Alison Cooley

in Epigraphy and the Historical Sciences

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780197265062
eISBN:
9780191754173
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197265062.003.0008
Subject:
Classical Studies, European History: BCE to 500CE

The transformation of written imperial documents into monumental inscriptions in the Greek-speaking provinces owed more to local agency than central direction. Local interests ensured public display ... More


Allegations of Disloyalty at Labor and Consumer Agencies, 1939–43

Landon R. Y. Storrs

in The Second Red Scare and the Unmaking of the New Deal Left

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691153964
eISBN:
9781400845255
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691153964.003.0003
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter looks at key figures in the emerging anticommunist network and analyzes two early episodes: the Smith Committee attack on the National Labor Relations Board and its allies, and the Dies ... More


A Treatise versus Prices and Production

Tyler Beck Goodspeed

in Rethinking the Keynesian Revolution: Keynes, Hayek, and the Wicksell Connection

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199846658
eISBN:
9780199950126
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199846658.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic Systems

This chapter delves into the first Keynesian and Hayekian variations on the Wicksellian theme, namely, Keynes’s A Treatise on Money (1930) and Hayek’s Prices and Production (1931). We explain that in ... More


Pure Theory of Capital

Tyler Beck Goodspeed

in Rethinking the Keynesian Revolution: Keynes, Hayek, and the Wicksell Connection

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199846658
eISBN:
9780199950126
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199846658.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic Systems

This chapter tackles Hayek’s Pure Theory of Capital (1941), and various elucidations of the “Ricardo effect.” Here, the chapter examines how Hayek absorbed many of Sraffa’s criticisms and moved away ... More


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