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The 2003 Fischler Reform

Arlindo Cunha and Alan Swinbank

in An Inside View of the CAP Reform Process: Explaining the MacSharry, Agenda 2000, and Fischler Reforms

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199591572
eISBN:
9780191725579
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199591572.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, European Union, International Relations and Politics

The 2003 reform is generally considered to have been the most radical in the history of the CAP, in that it largely decoupled farm income support from production with the introduction of the Single ... More


Paid: Tales of Dongles, Checks, and Other Money Stuff

Bill Maurer and Lana Swartz (eds)

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780262035750
eISBN:
9780262338332
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262035750.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

For over a hundred years, many have envisioned a cashless society, whether utopian or dystopian. Now, in an era of mobile money and Bitcoin, it seems that cashlessness might not be far off. In recent ... More


Payment by Results and Social Impact Bonds: Outcome-Based Payment Systems in the UK and US

Kevin Albertson, Chris Fox, Chris O'Leary, and Gary Painter

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9781447340706
eISBN:
9781447340744
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447340706.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Public Policy

Over recent years there has been increasing interest in ‘Payment by Results’ (PbR) — Pay for Success (PFS) or outcomes-based funding in the US — as a model for outcomes-based commissioning in the ... More


Securities Clearing and Settlement: Regulatory Developments in Europe

Eddy Wymeersch

in Investor Protection in Europe: Corporate Law Making, The MiFID and Beyond

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199202911
eISBN:
9780191707964
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199202911.003.0016
Subject:
Law, Company and Commercial Law

The subject of clearing and settlement has recently become one of the most controversial issues in the creation of a European securities market. The cost and rigidities flowing from the present state ... More


The Enhancement of Biodiversity: Managing Access, Pricing Usage

Christian de Perthuis and Pierre-André Jouvet

in Green Capital: A New Perspective on Growth

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780231171403
eISBN:
9780231540360
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231171403.003.0012
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

The assessment instruments developed by economists provide a better understanding of the incentives that must be put in place to curb the damage to biodiversity by combining the lever of access to ... More


The Future of Healthcare Reform Remains in Federal Court

Jonathan H. Adler

in The Future of Healthcare Reform In the United States

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780226254951
eISBN:
9780226255002
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226255002.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Medical Law

This chapter outlines how litigation in federal court will affect the implementation and viability of the Affordable Care Act (PPACA). The ACA's statutory language and administrative fixes complicate ... More


Revenue Chokepoints

Natasha Tusikov

in Chokepoints: Global Private Regulation on the Internet

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780520291218
eISBN:
9780520965034
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520291218.003.0003
Subject:
Society and Culture, Technology and Society

The chapter examines how payment providers (PayPal, Visa and MasterCard) and advertising intermediaries (Google, Yahoo and Microsoft) police websites selling or advertising counterfeit goods through ... More


From workhouses to hospitals

Donnacha Seán Lucey

in The End of the Irish Poor Law?: Welfare and healthcare reform in revolutionary and independent Ireland

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780719087578
eISBN:
9781526104014
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719087578.003.0005
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History

It examines attempts by the newly independent Irish Free State to reform and de-stigmatise medical relief in former workhouse infirmaries. Such reforms were designed to move away from nineteenth ... More


Imagining Forest Futures and Climate Change: The Mexican State as Insurance Broker and Storyteller

Andrew S. Mathews

in Climate Cultures: Anthropological Perspectives on Climate Change

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780300198812
eISBN:
9780300213577
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300198812.003.0009
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

Forests in Mexico have become of interest as possible sites for climate change mitigation, through REDD (Reduced Emissions through Deforestation and Degradation) policies, which compensate landowners ... More


The Swipe

Michael Palm

in Paid: Tales of Dongles, Checks, and Other Money Stuff

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780262035750
eISBN:
9780262338332
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262035750.003.0018
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

This chapter traces the meaning of “the swipe.” The verb “to swipe” has many colloquial meaning. In recent years, it has come to mean running a charge card through a digital reader or using an index ... More


NHS finances under the Coalition

Anita Charlesworth, Adam Roberts, and Sarah Lafond

in Dismantling the NHS?: Evaluating the Impact of Health Reforms

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9781447330226
eISBN:
9781447330271
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447330226.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, UK Politics

This chapter introduces some of the challenges the NHS faced over the five years of Coalition government. ‘The Nicholson Challenge’ arose following the 2008 global economic crisis. The NHS was faced ... More


Work and paying for housing

Brian Portley

in Immigration and housing in the Republic of Ireland

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780719095931
eISBN:
9781781708514
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719095931.003.0004
Subject:
Society and Culture, Cultural Studies

Chapter Four scrutinises the link between employment and the housing choices available to migrants. The premise of this chapter is that housing has to be paid for. Therefore, this chapter examines if ... More


Introduction: outcome-based payment and the reform of public services

Kevin Albertson, Chris Fox, Chris O’leary, Gary Painter, Kimberly Bailey, and Jessica Labarbera

in Payment by Results and Social Impact Bonds: Outcome-Based Payment Systems in the UK and US

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9781447340706
eISBN:
9781447340744
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447340706.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Public Policy

This book examines outcomes-based commissioning as an important element of the public service reform agenda, focusing on Payment by Results (PbR) and Social Impact Bonds (SIBs) in the UK (also known ... More


Outcome-based commissioning: theoretical underpinnings

Kevin Albertson, Chris Fox, Chris O’leary, Gary Painter, Kimberly Bailey, and Jessica Labarbera

in Payment by Results and Social Impact Bonds: Outcome-Based Payment Systems in the UK and US

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9781447340706
eISBN:
9781447340744
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447340706.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Public Policy

This chapter discusses some key theoretical issues that are raised by outcomes-based commissioning. It begins by outlining three potential theoretical drivers of outcomes-based commissioning. First, ... More


Payment by Results and Social Impact Bonds in the UK

Kevin Albertson, Chris Fox, Chris O’leary, Gary Painter, Kimberly Bailey, and Jessica Labarbera

in Payment by Results and Social Impact Bonds: Outcome-Based Payment Systems in the UK and US

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9781447340706
eISBN:
9781447340744
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447340706.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Public Policy

This chapter discusses the development of outcomes-based commissioning in the UK, focusing on Payment by Results (PbR) and Social Impact Bonds (SIBs). It first considers key policies that have ... More


Review of the evidence for outcome-based payment systems

Kevin Albertson, Chris Fox, Chris O’leary, Gary Painter, Kimberly Bailey, and Jessica Labarbera

in Payment by Results and Social Impact Bonds: Outcome-Based Payment Systems in the UK and US

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9781447340706
eISBN:
9781447340744
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447340706.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Public Policy

This chapter reviews the current state of evidence on what works in outcomes-based commissioning using published evaluations of Payment by Results (PbR) and Social Impact Bonds (SIBs) in the UK and ... More


Conclusions, cautions and future directions

Kevin Albertson, Chris Fox, Chris O’leary, Gary Painter, Kimberly Bailey, and Jessica Labarbera

in Payment by Results and Social Impact Bonds: Outcome-Based Payment Systems in the UK and US

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9781447340706
eISBN:
9781447340744
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447340706.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, Public Policy

This book has examined some technical, economic and political questions about outcomes-based commissioning as well as key theoretical debates, arguing that outcomes-based commissioning in its various ... More


Protecting Human Research Subjects as Human Research Workers

Holly Fernandez Lynch

in Human Subjects Research Regulation: Perspectives on the Future

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780262027465
eISBN:
9780262320825
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262027465.003.0027
Subject:
Biology, Bioethics

Clinical research involving human subjects has traditionally been treated as a unique endeavor, presenting special risks and demanding special protections. But in several ways, the regulatory scheme ... More


Probation and criminal justice, 1997–2015: from New Labour to the Coalition government

Philip Whitehead

in Transforming Probation: Social Theories and the Criminal Justice System

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9781447327653
eISBN:
9781447327677
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447327653.003.0002
Subject:
Social Work, Crime and Justice

This chapter excavates substantive developments in probation, criminal justice, and penal policy, from the election of new labour in 1997 to the end of coalition government in 2015. New labour ... More


Ecosystem Services and Health

Tee L. Guidotti

in Health and Sustainability: An Introduction

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780199325337
eISBN:
9780190238803
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199325337.003.0008
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology

Ecosystem services are functions performed by the natural environment that have economic value and that are performed by ecosystems without human intervention (other than to protect the ecosystem). ... More


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