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 Redefining the Boundaries of Belonging: The Transnationalization of Religious Life

Peggy Levitt

in Everyday Religion: Observing Modern Religious Lives

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780195305418
eISBN:
9780199785094
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195305418.003.0006
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

In the 21st century, many people will live transnational lives, belonging to several societies and cultures at once, and they will use religion to do so. This chapter discusses how immigrants from ... More


Secular States in Crisis

Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr

in The Islamic Leviathan: Islam and the making of State Power.

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195144260
eISBN:
9780199833931
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195144260.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Malaysia and Pakistan sought to address their problems through economic growth and the management of ethnic tensions. Malaysia pursued the New Economic Policy (NEP) to favor Malay bumiputras (sons of ... More


The Negotiable State: Borders and Power‐Struggles in Pakistan

Vali Nasr

in Right-sizing the State: The Politics of Moving Borders

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199244904
eISBN:
9780191600050
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199244901.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Vali Nasr examines the political dynamics behind the crucial 1969–71 negotiations on the shape of Pakistan's territory. The author examines how power‐elite interests and their perception of the ... More


The United Nations and Humanitarian Intervention

Sir Adam Roberts

in Humanitarian Intervention and International Relations

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
April 2004
ISBN:
9780199267217
eISBN:
9780191601118
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199267219.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Demonstrates that the United Nations has been at the centre of key field operations and policy debates relating to humanitarian intervention since the end of the Cold War. However, the issue of ... More


Nepal

Karl‐Heinz Krämer

in Elections in Asia and the Pacific: A Data Handbook: Volume I: Middle East, Central Asia, and South Asia

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199249589
eISBN:
9780191600029
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019924958X.003.0030
Subject:
Political Science, Reference

Includes all relevant information on national elections and referendums held in Pakistan since its independence in 1947. Part I gives a comprehensive overview of Pakistan's political history, ... More


The Islamic Leviathan: Islam and the making of State Power.

Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195144260
eISBN:
9780199833931
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195144260.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Islamism is often associated with oppositional social movements. However, increasingly, Muslim states too have served as agents of Islamism. They have adopted Islamization strategies, and realigned ... More


Introduction: Defining the Problem

Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr

in The Islamic Leviathan: Islam and the making of State Power.

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195144260
eISBN:
9780199833931
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195144260.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Most studies of Islamism have focused on the role of oppositional forces. Increasingly, states are also important Islamist actors. States pursue Islamization not only in reaction to Islamist ... More


From Independence to 1969

Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr

in The Islamic Leviathan: Islam and the making of State Power.

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195144260
eISBN:
9780199833931
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195144260.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Malaysia and Pakistan were created from the rump of British colonialism in India and Southeast Asia. Both states lacked national identity or a unified polity that preceded independence. Both ... More


The Islamist Challenge in Malaysia and Pakistan

Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr

in The Islamic Leviathan: Islam and the making of State Power.

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195144260
eISBN:
9780199833931
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195144260.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

The 1970s was a period of Islamic resurgence in Malaysia and Pakistan. In Malaysia, ABIM and dakwah movements, and in Pakistan, the Jama`at‐i Islami spearheaded Islamist challenge to the secular ... More


Pakistan, 1977–1997: Islamization and Restoration of State Power

Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr

in The Islamic Leviathan: Islam and the making of State Power.

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195144260
eISBN:
9780199833931
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195144260.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

The Zia ul‐Haq regime adopted state‐led Islamization to shore up waning state power. It adopted aspects of Islamist ideology to reshape the country's judicial and political structures. This strategy ... More


Conclusion: The Islamization Period in the Balance

Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr

in The Islamic Leviathan: Islam and the making of State Power.

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195144260
eISBN:
9780199833931
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195144260.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Why did only Malaysia and Pakistan adopt state‐led Islamization as a strategy for expansion of state power? How did this strategy serve their interests? What was the impact of this strategy on these ... More


The Cost of Incorporation: Labor Institutions, Industrial Restructuring, and New Trade Union Strategies in India and Pakistan

Christopher Candland

in The Politics of Labor in a Global Age: Continuity and Change in Late-Industrializing and Post-Socialist Economies

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199241149
eISBN:
9780191598920
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199241147.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

In India, an impressive labour movement based on political unionism developed and exercised some influence over economic policy. In Pakistan, an assertive and often militant workers’ movement ... More


India as Rescuer? Order Versus Justice in the Bangladesh War of 1971

Nicholas J. Wheeler

in Saving Strangers: Humanitarian Intervention in International Society

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199253104
eISBN:
9780191600302
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199253102.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Examines the justifications, motives, and outcomes surrounding India's use of force against Pakistan in December 1971. It shows how international society as reflected in the positions taken by the ... More


South Asia After the Cold War: Adjusting to New Realities

P. R. Kumaraswamy

in The Third World Beyond the Cold War: Continuity and Change

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198295518
eISBN:
9780191599217
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198295510.003.0009
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Looks at the different levels of change in the countries of South Asia (Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka) since the end of the cold war, and attempts to determine how, and to ... More


Between Religion and Law: Politics as an Intervening Variable

Kristine Kalanges

in Religious Liberty in Western and Islamic Law

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199859467
eISBN:
9780199933518
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199859467.003.0005
Subject:
Law, Public International Law, Comparative Law

Recognizing that the construction and institutionalization of religious liberty rights is at once a political and a legal project, this chapter proceeds in two main sections. The first focuses on the ... More


Pakistan: “Why Would Our Hajjis Vote against Us?”

Robert R. Bianchi

in Guests of God: Pilgrimage and Politics in the Islamic World

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780195171075
eISBN:
9780199835102
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195171071.003.0006
Subject:
Religion, Islam

Hajj growth closely tracks the power struggles and ideological shifts that shaped and demolished Pakistan’s political regimes. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and his Pakistan People’s Party helped to invent ... More


Religion and Terrorism: Misreading al Qaeda

Paul Marshall

in Blind Spot: When Journalists Don't Get Religion

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195374360
eISBN:
9780199871902
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195374360.003.0003
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

This chapter describes Islamist terrorists’ developed ideology and how to them this explains and justifies their brutalities. It then contrasts their stated motives and rationales with press coverage ... More


Muslims in India and China

Peter van der Veer

in The Modern Spirit of Asia: The Spiritual and the Secular in China and India

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691128146
eISBN:
9781400848553
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691128146.003.0008
Subject:
Anthropology, Social and Cultural Anthropology

This chapter scrutinizes some of the elements of the “minoritization” of Muslims in India and China. Indian Muslims have a history that gives them a centrality in processes of state formation in ... More


A turban in Stockholm

Gordon Fraser

in Cosmic Anger: Abdus Salam - The First Muslim Nobel Scientist

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199208463
eISBN:
9780191708954
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199208463.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

This chapter discusses the life of Abdus Salam. He was born in British India and was a subject of George V, who was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, and Emperor of India. In 1947, what ... More


Pakistan: Refugee History and Policies of Pakistan: An Afghan Case Study

Shireen S. Issa, Gail Desmond, and Fariyal Ross

in Immigration Worldwide: Policies, Practices, and Trends

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195388138
eISBN:
9780199863440
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388138.003.0012
Subject:
Social Work, Social Policy, Communities and Organizations

In Pakistan, the only law pertaining to immigrants is the Foreigners Order of 1951 (amended in 2000). All immigrants or refugees in Pakistan, unless otherwise determined, are therefore considered ... More


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