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John Wyclif

Stephen Edmund Lahey

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195183313
eISBN:
9780199870349
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183313.001.0001
Subject:
Religion, History of Christianity

The 14th-century English philosopher and theologian John Wyclif (d. 1384) has been described as a forerunner of the Reformation, but is better understood as the last important thinker of Oxford’s ... More


The Dilemma of Freedom and Foreknowledge

Linda Trinkaus Zagzebski

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195107630
eISBN:
9780199852956
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195107630.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

This book examines the three leading traditional solutions to the dilemma of divine foreknowledge and human free will—those arising from Boethius, William of Ockham, and Luis de Molina. Though all ... More


Introduction to Medieval Logic

Alexander Broadie

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198240266
eISBN:
9780191680137
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198240266.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics, History of Philosophy

Medieval logicians advanced far beyond the logic of Aristotle and the aim of this book is to show how far that advance took them in two central areas. This book focuses upon the work of some of the ... More


The Physics of Duns Scotus: The Scientific Context of a Theological Vision

Richard Cross

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198269748
eISBN:
9780191683787
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198269748.001.0001
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy of Religion, Theology

Duns Scotus, along with Thomas Aquinas and William of Ockham, was one of the three most talented and influential of the medieval schoolmen, and a highly original and ... More


Divine Production in Late Medieval Trinitarian Theology: Henry of Ghent, Duns Scotus, and William Ockham

JT Paasch

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199646371
eISBN:
9780191739293
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199646371.001.0001
Subject:
Religion, Theology, Church History

According to the doctrine of the Trinity, the Father, Son, and Spirit are supposed to be distinct from each other, and yet be one and the same God. As if that were not perplexing enough, there is ... More


What are Faculties of the Soul? Descartes and his Scholastic Background

Dominik Perler

in Continuity and Innovation in Medieval and Modern Philosophy: Knowledge, Mind and Language

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780197265499
eISBN:
9780191760310
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197265499.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Descartes famously claimed that a human soul is a single substance without any parts. But he also affirmed that the soul has two faculties, namely intellect and will, which act as ‘two concurrent ... More


THE OXFORD CONTEXT OF WYCLIF’S THOUGHT

Stephen E. Lahey

in John Wyclif

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195183313
eISBN:
9780199870349
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183313.003.0002
Subject:
Religion, History of Christianity

Wyclif’s philosophical thought followed a period of remarkable innovation in the history of medieval philosophy, when the Ockhamist movement challenged the Aristotelian synthesis of Thomist and ... More


Parsimony, Phylogeny, and Genomics

Victor A. Albert (ed.)

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199297306
eISBN:
9780191713729
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199297306.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Parsimony analysis (cladistics) has long been one of the most widely used methods of phylogenetic inference in the fields of systematic and evolutionary biology. Moreover, it has mathematical ... More


Aristotelian Preliminaries

Marilyn McCord Adams

in Some Later Medieval Theories of the Eucharist: Thomas Aquinas, Gilles of Rome, Duns Scotus, and William Ockham

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199591053
eISBN:
9780191595554
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199591053.003.0002
Subject:
Religion, Theology, Philosophy of Religion

Aristotelian philosophy gave Aquinas, Giles of Rome, Scotus, and Ockham the philosophical tools they needed to formulate real presence and sacramental causality precisely. This chapter orients by ... More


Sacramental Causality: “Effecting What They Figure!”

Marilyn McCord Adams

in Some Later Medieval Theories of the Eucharist: Thomas Aquinas, Gilles of Rome, Duns Scotus, and William Ockham

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199591053
eISBN:
9780191595554
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199591053.003.0004
Subject:
Religion, Theology, Philosophy of Religion

Circumcision and new-law sacraments were held to be efficacious signs of spiritual benefits in suitable receivers and/or the real presence of the Body and Blood of Christ. Since the material stuffs ... More


Remodelling With Ockham

Marilyn McCord Adams

in Some Later Medieval Theories of the Eucharist: Thomas Aquinas, Gilles of Rome, Duns Scotus, and William Ockham

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199591053
eISBN:
9780191595554
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199591053.003.0008
Subject:
Religion, Theology, Philosophy of Religion

Aquinas treats quantity as the reified accident to which it essentially pertains to be divided into distinct parts at a distance from one another. Quantity thus explains the divisibility of matter ... More


Doctrinal Prologue

Gregory B. Graybill

in Evangelical Free Will: Phillipp Melanchthon's Doctrinal Journey on the Origins of Faith

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199589487
eISBN:
9780191594588
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199589487.003.0002
Subject:
Religion, Church History

This chapter presents the theological context in which Melanchthon operated. The soteriologies of nine major figures in the western Christian tradition are given, with an emphasis on their ... More


Independent Accidents: Scotus and Ockham

Marilyn McCord Adams

in Some Later Medieval Theories of the Eucharist: Thomas Aquinas, Gilles of Rome, Duns Scotus, and William Ockham

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199591053
eISBN:
9780191595554
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199591053.003.0010
Subject:
Religion, Theology, Philosophy of Religion

Scotus and Ockham both deny that reified quantity can play any role in the individuation of material substances or their accidents. Moreover, they interpret Aristotle as saying, not that only ... More


Theology Provoking Philosophy

Marilyn McCord Adams

in Some Later Medieval Theories of the Eucharist: Thomas Aquinas, Gilles of Rome, Duns Scotus, and William Ockham

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199591053
eISBN:
9780191595554
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199591053.003.0011
Subject:
Religion, Theology, Philosophy of Religion

Like Neoplatonists before them, Aquinas, Giles of Rome, Scotus, and Ockham transplant chunks of Aristotle's analysis into a framework containing Divine omnipotence and real presence. This chapter ... More


Parsimony and phylogenetics in the genomic age

Victor A. Albert

in Parsimony, Phylogeny, and Genomics

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199297306
eISBN:
9780191713729
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199297306.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Parsimony analysis (Ockham's razor) as a general method of inference has a long history, from the arguments of Copernicus against Ptolemy's heliocentric solar system, through Sir Farncis Crick's ... More


Pope John XXII and his Franciscan Cardinal: Bertrand de la Tour and the Apostolic Poverty Controversy

Patrick Nold

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199268757
eISBN:
9780191708510
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199268757.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Religion

The debate over the poverty of Christ and his apostles under Pope John XXII (1316-1334) is one of the most famous intellectual controversies of the Middle Ages. The story of the uncompromising pope ... More


Unsettling Judgment: Knowledge, Belief, and the Crisis of Authority

Douglas John Casson

in Liberating Judgment: Fanatics, Skeptics, and John Locke's Politics of Probability

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691144740
eISBN:
9781400836888
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691144740.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This chapter traces the breakdown of the medieval vocabulary of justification that was characterized by certain knowledge on one hand (scientia) and probable belief on the other (opinio). Terms ... More


Nominalism, Naturalism, and the Intensification of Passion Piety

Richard Viladesau

in The Beauty of the Cross: The Passion of Christ in Theology and the Arts from the Catacombs to the Eve of the Renaissance

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780195188110
eISBN:
9780199784738
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019518811X.003.0005
Subject:
Religion, History of Christianity

The fresco of the crucifixion by Giotto in the Arena chapel represents the beginning of naturalism in Western painting. The theology of the cross during this period shows the increasing influence of ... More


The Metaphysics of the Categories in John Duns Scotus

Simo Knuuttila

in Categories of Being: Essays on Metaphysics and Logic

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199890576
eISBN:
9780199980031
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199890576.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

A special feature of Duns Scotus's philosophy is his unusually broad univocal notion of being as ‘that to which to be is not repugnant’. This led him to distinguish between logical and metaphysical ... More


Ockham on Being

Calvin G. Normore

in Categories of Being: Essays on Metaphysics and Logic

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199890576
eISBN:
9780199980031
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199890576.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

In his mature work Ockham begins with a semantics centred on the ideas that terms signify things and that connotative terms signify only those things signified by the terms in their nominal ... More


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