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Regulation and Funding of Research

Robert I. Field

in Health Care Regulation in America: Complexity, Confrontation, and Compromise

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195159684
eISBN:
9780199864423
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195159684.003.0008
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter examines the government's role in regulating and funding research. It traces the growth of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) into the largest single source of biomedical research ... More


How the Government Created the Pharmaceutical Industry

Robert I. Field

in Mother of Invention: How the Government Created "Free-Market" Health Care

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199746750
eISBN:
9780199354528
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199746750.003.0003
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

The pharmaceutical industry, perennially one of the most profitable,requires a steady flow of biomedical research to develop new products. However, investment in basic scienceis difficult for private ... More


The Government and the Private Market in Health Care

Robert I. Field

in Mother of Invention: How the Government Created "Free-Market" Health Care

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199746750
eISBN:
9780199354528
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199746750.003.0002
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

The American health care system, which appears on its surface as a predominantly private endeavour, actually rests on a foundation of government support. Itreflects a huge public-private partnership ... More


Funding Social Work Research: Federal and Foundation Opportunities

Ruth G. McRoy, Jerry P. Flanzer, and Joan Levy Zlotnik

in Building Research Culture and Infrastructure

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195399646
eISBN:
9780199932757
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195399646.003.0007
Subject:
Social Work, Research and Evaluation

Finding grant funding for research is one of the biggest challenges social work faculty and research administrators often face. While few research funding resources are specifically targeted only to ... More


Politics of Healing

John S. Haller

in Shadow Medicine: The Placebo in Conventional and Alternative Therapies

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231169042
eISBN:
9780231537704
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231169042.003.0004
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter describes the political pressures that led to the creation of the Office for the Study of Unconventional Medical Practices. The exponential growth for medical costs starting in the 1970s ... More


Funding the trial

Curtis L. Meinert and Susan Tonascia

in Clinical Trials: Design, Conduct and Analysis

Published in print:
1986
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195035681
eISBN:
9780199864478
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195035681.003.0021
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

An essential step in the execution of a trial is the acquisition of funding to carry it out. The approach taken is influenced by whether the investigator or sponsor is responsible for initiating the ... More


The Allocation of Publicly Funded Biomedical Research

Frank R. Lichtenberg

in Medical Care Output and Productivity

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226132266
eISBN:
9780226132303
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226132303.003.0016
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

In the last century, the average health of the American people has improved dramatically. The mean life expectancy of Americans has increased almost twenty years, or two years per decade, since the ... More


Cost and related issues

Curtis L. Meinert and Susan Tonascia

in Clinical Trials: Design, Conduct and Analysis

Published in print:
1986
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195035681
eISBN:
9780199864478
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195035681.003.0006
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter summarizes available cost data on trials, as provided in the National Institutes of Health Inventory of Clinical trials, and reviews factors that influence the cost of trials.


Government Priorities for Biomedical Research: What Does Justice Require?

Rebecca Dresser

in Law and Medicine: Current Legal Issues Volume 3

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198299189
eISBN:
9780191685644
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198299189.003.0024
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law, Medical Law

During the 1990s, US government priorities for biomedical research funding became the focus of heated debate. Some members of Congress joined with organizations advocating on behalf of persons with ... More


Robert N. Butler, MD: Visionary of Healthy Aging

W. Andrew Achenbaum

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231164429
eISBN:
9780231535328
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231164429.001.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

Robert Neil Butler (1927–2010) was a scholar, psychiatrist, and Pulitzer Prize-winning author who revolutionized the way the world thinks about aging and the elderly. One of the first psychiatrists ... More


Race, Difference, and Genes

Myles W. Jackson

in The Genealogy of a Gene: Patents, HIV/AIDS, and Race

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780262028660
eISBN:
9780262327190
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262028660.003.0008
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter situates the CCR5 gene, specifically the Δ‎32 allele, in the contexts of four distinct yet related enterprises- race and genomics, Big Pharma, personalized medicine, and personal ... More


Peer Review

in Contested Medicine: Cancer Research and the Military

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226465319
eISBN:
9780226465333
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226465333.003.0007
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter explores the role of ethical peer review at Cincinnati and shows that contemporary judgments of Eugene Saenger were highly contingent and affected by social and political forces. It ... More


Deflecting Responsibility

Laura Stark

in Behind Closed Doors: IRBs and the Making of Ethical Research

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780226770864
eISBN:
9780226770888
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226770888.003.0007
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter examines the work of the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) in relation to human-subjects protections. It suggests that the leadership of the NIH on this front can be understood as ... More


Who Owns What? Private Ownership and Public Interest

Doogab Yi

in The Recombinant University: Genetic Engineering and the Emergence of Stanford Biotechnology

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780226143835
eISBN:
9780226216119
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226216119.003.0005
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Chapter 5 analyzes how academic institutions, government agencies, and the nascent biotechnology industry argued about the legal ownership of recombinant DNA technology in the name of the public ... More


The CCR5 Patent and Intellectual Property Law

Myles W. Jackson

in The Genealogy of a Gene: Patents, HIV/AIDS, and Race

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780262028660
eISBN:
9780262327190
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262028660.003.0004
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Using the CCR5 patent as a guide, this chapter analyses how various legal precedents based on chemistry have proven to be inappropriate to genes. Gene patents are controversial not simply because of ... More


Who's Minding the Store?

Lynn C. Klotz and Edward J. Sylvester

in Breeding Bio Insecurity: How U.S. Biodefense Is Exporting Fear, Globalizing Risk, and Making Us All Less Secure

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226444055
eISBN:
9780226444079
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226444079.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Biotechnology

Usually everybody trusts the research institutions' legally mandated institutional biosafety committees (IBCs) to safeguard neighborhoods from harm at the local level by providing expert oversight ... More


Bridging the Valley

Michael Kinch

in Prescription for Change: The Looming Crisis in Drug Development

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9781469630625
eISBN:
9781469630649
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469630625.003.0013
Subject:
Business and Management, Innovation

The withdrawal of large company support for early stage research, combined with shrinking Federal expenditures, has created a “Valley of Death” in drug discovery that creates both pressing challenges ... More


Elitism, Democracy, and Science Policy

Philip Kitcher

in Science, Truth, and Democracy

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195145830
eISBN:
9780199833344
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195145836.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

From the perspective of well‐ordered science one can explore previous attempts to set science policy. This chapter considers three: Bacon's story of the New Atlantis, Vannevar Bush's Science: The ... More


Observational Practices and Natural Habitats

Deborah Weinstein

in The Pathological Family: Postwar America and the Rise of Family Therapy

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801451416
eISBN:
9780801468155
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801451416.003.0005
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter studies the role of observation in the production of knowledge about families. It analyzes three residentially based research projects that study families through methodologies ... More


The Dickey-Wicker Enigma

Sheldon Krimsky

in Stem Cell Dialogues: A Philosophical and Scientific Inquiry Into Medical Frontiers

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231167482
eISBN:
9780231539401
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231167482.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Bioethics

This dialogue provides a fictional account of the arguments heard before the three-judge panel of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia regarding Sherley v. Sebelius—a challenge to ... More


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