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Conclusion

Azar Gat

in Fascist and Liberal Visions of War: Fuller, Liddell Hart, Douhet, and Other Modernists

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198207153
eISBN:
9780191677519
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198207153.003.0007
Subject:
History, Military History, History of Ideas

Fascism is primarily associated with the Mussolini's regime in Italy and Hitler's government in Germany. While these two countries exhibited an explosive effect, this study was only marginally ... More


The Pontine Marshes

Robert Sallares

in Malaria and Rome: A History of Malaria in Ancient Italy

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199248506
eISBN:
9780191714634
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199248506.003.0006
Subject:
Classical Studies, European History: BCE to 500CE

This chapter studies the history of the Pontine Marshes in the south of Rome in relation to malaria, for which the region was notorious until the bonifications of Mussolini. The accounts given by ... More


The Attrition of the Liberal Regime in Italy

Charles S. Maier

in Recasting Bourgeois Europe: Stabilization in France, Germany, and Italy in the Decade after World War I

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691169798
eISBN:
9781400873708
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691169798.003.0006
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter examines the attrition of the liberal regime in Italy. The inability to reestablish a stable centrist majority in Italy brought not only a shift to the right, but also destruction of the ... More


Majorities without Mandates: Issues and Elections in the Spring of 1924

Charles S. Maier

in Recasting Bourgeois Europe: Stabilization in France, Germany, and Italy in the Decade after World War I

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691169798
eISBN:
9781400873708
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691169798.003.0008
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter examines issues arising from the elections that were held in France, Germany, and Italy in the spring of 1924, asking in particular whether the elections could resolve the political ... More


Francesco Crispi 1818-1901: From Nation to Nationalism

Christopher Duggan

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198206118
eISBN:
9780191717178
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206118.001.0001
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This book is a biography of Francesco Crispi (1818-1901), one of the most important and controversial figures in modern Italian history. Crispi was among the key figures in the Italian Risorgimento, ... More


The Flight from the Enchanter

Paul Corner

in The Fascist Party and Popular Opinion in Mussolini's Italy

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780198730699
eISBN:
9780191741753
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198730699.003.0011
Subject:
History, European Modern History

The chapter examines the cult of the Duce, generated during the 1930s, and then looks at the decline in Mussolini's popularity in the closing years of the 1930s and of the awareness among fascists of ... More


A Pact with Vichy: Angelo Tasca from Italian Socialism to French Collaboration

Emanuel Rota

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780823245642
eISBN:
9780823252824
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823245642.001.0001
Subject:
History, Political History

Angelo Tasca, a pivotal figure in the political history of twentieth-century Italy, and indeed the history of Europe, is frequently overshadowed by his Fascist opponent Benito Mussolini or his ... More


The Rilke Alphabet

Ulrich Baer

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780823256280
eISBN:
9780823261338
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823256280.001.0001
Subject:
Literature, Poetry

The Rilke Alphabet examines key terms in Rilke’s poetry, letters and prose to reveal major themes in his work, such as love, death, immanence, beauty, art, faith, suffering, hope. The book examines ... More


‘Neither Defeat nor Surrender’: Italy’s Change of Alliances in 1943

John Gooch

in How Fighting Ends: A History of Surrender

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199693627
eISBN:
9780191741258
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199693627.003.0023
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

In 1943, with the war demonstrably turning against Italy, her political and military leaders faced three unpalatable alternatives: a bloody and destructive military defeat, the spectre of bolshevism, ... More


Introduction: Surrender in World War II

Gerhard L. Weinberg

in How Fighting Ends: A History of Surrender

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199693627
eISBN:
9780191741258
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199693627.003.0032
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Both sides in World War II expected the other to accept unconditional surrender. If Hitler had been overthrown by internal opposition there might have been a compromise peace. France and Finland were ... More


Fascist Directive: Ezra Pound and Italian Cultural Nationalism

Catherine E. Paul

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9781942954057
eISBN:
9781781384053
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:
10.5949/liverpool/9781942954057.001.0001
Subject:
Literature, American, 20th Century Literature

In 1938, American poet Ezra Pound published Guide to Kulchur, a book so radically different from his earlier writing that readers might not have believed that it was written by the same firebrand ... More


‘Upholding the Covenant and the Public Law of Europe’: The Corfu Crisis, 1923

Peter J. Yearwood

in Guarantee of Peace: The League of Nations in British Policy 1914-1925

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199226733
eISBN:
9780191710308
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199226733.003.0007
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History

London was outraged by Mussolini's bombardment and occupation of Corfu following the murder of the Italian president of the commission delimiting the Graeco‐Albanian border. Curzon and the Foreign ... More


Paramilitary Violence in Italy: The Rationale of Fascism and the Origins of Totalitarianism

Emilio Gentile

in War in Peace: Paramilitary Violence in Europe after the Great War

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199654918
eISBN:
9780191744273
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199654918.003.0006
Subject:
History, European Modern History, Military History

Italy was the first liberal country in which a paramilitary movement assumed power. In his contribution to this volume Emilio Gentile demonstrates how the practice and culture of paramilitary ... More


Communism and Fascism

Marc Mulholland

in Bourgeois Liberty and the Politics of Fear: From Absolutism to Neo-Conservatism

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199653577
eISBN:
9780191744594
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199653577.003.0011
Subject:
History, World Modern History, History of Ideas

In Weimar Germany, parliamentary democracy stabilized, but at the cost of entrenching the power of the reactionary ‘permanent state’ (army, most police forces, judiciary, most civil servants). ... More


Troubled Waters: Uncertainties in Italy, Eastern Europe, and the Soviet Union

Lord Bullock and William Deakin

in The Lights that Failed: European International History 1919-1933

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198221142
eISBN:
9780191678417
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198221142.003.0011
Subject:
History, European Modern History

Limited by his country's economic and military weakness and by the remaining checks on his power, Mussolini engaged in a highly complex diplomatic game that ultimately created regional instability ... More


Revolution from the Right: Italy, 1919–1925

Lord Bullock and William Deakin

in The Lights that Failed: European International History 1919-1933

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198221142
eISBN:
9780191678417
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198221142.003.0007
Subject:
History, European Modern History

Italy's leaders found themselves in an ambiguous situation after the conclusion of the peace treaties. They had everything to gain from the maintenance of the Versailles settlement; they had won the ... More


Marco Bellocchio

Jason Wood

in Last Words: Considering Contemporary Cinema

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231171977
eISBN:
9780231850698
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231171977.003.0004
Subject:
Film, Television and Radio, Film

This chapter presents an interview with filmmaker Marco Bellocchio. Bellocchio exploded onto the international film scene in 1965 with his fiery debut, Fists in the Pocket and has since then become ... More


Fascist Modernities: Italy, 1922-1945

Ruth Ben-Ghiat

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520223639
eISBN:
9780520938052
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520223639.001.0001
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This book's innovative cultural history of Mussolini's dictatorship is a provocative discussion of the meanings of modernity in interwar Italy. Eloquent, pathbreaking, and deft in its use of a broad ... More


Toward a Fascist Culture

Ruth Ben-Ghiat

in Fascist Modernities: Italy, 1922-1945

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520223639
eISBN:
9780520938052
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520223639.003.0002
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter discusses the evolution of the Benito Mussolini regime's patronage structure and examines how Italians' critiques of foreign mass societies played a role in the definition of fascist ... More


Narrating the Nation

Ruth Ben-Ghiat

in Fascist Modernities: Italy, 1922-1945

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520223639
eISBN:
9780520938052
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520223639.003.0003
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter examines the ways in which literature participated in Benito Mussolini's regeneration campaign and in the creation of a distinctly Italian and fascist model of modernity. Certainly, not ... More


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