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“To Protect and Defend”: World War II

István Hargittai

in The Martians of Science: Five Physicists Who Changed the Twentieth Century

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195178456
eISBN:
9780199787012
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195178456.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

By the start of World War II, the Martians had become involved in politics. They helped the United States get ready for modern warfare, including advancements in air power, the atomic bomb, and an ... More


Reactors

Angela N. H. Creager

in Life Atomic: A History of Radioisotopes in Science and Medicine

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780226017808
eISBN:
9780226017945
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226017945.003.0003
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Leaders in the Manhattan Project laid the groundwork for the government’s mass-production of radioisotopes during the war. The U.S. Army constructed the Oak Ridge reactor as a pilot plant for the ... More


The Neutron's Children: Nuclear Engineers and the Shaping of Identity

Sean F. Johnston

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199692118
eISBN:
9780191740732
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199692118.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

This book follows nuclear engineers, specialists in a field described by early participants as a ‘strange journey through Alice in Wonderland’ and ‘What Buck Rogers reads about when he reads’. Their ... More


Implanting industrial cultures

Sean F. Johnston

in The Neutron's Children: Nuclear Engineers and the Shaping of Identity

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199692118
eISBN:
9780191740732
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199692118.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

Wartime experiences seeded the new nuclear specialists, and these environments gestated their post-war opportunities. The laboratories and production sites merged industrial and scientific cultures. ... More


At Work in the Atomic Beehive

Lindsey A. Freeman

in Longing for the Bomb: Oak Ridge and Atomic Nostalgia

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9781469622378
eISBN:
9781469623177
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469622378.003.0004
Subject:
Sociology, Science, Technology and Environment

This chapter discusses atomic fordism—the systematic compartmentalization of work for the Manhattan Project. The system stretched across the country with the nation’s major highways functioning as a ... More


The Martians of Science: Five Physicists Who Changed the Twentieth Century

István Hargittai

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195178456
eISBN:
9780199787012
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195178456.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

Five men born at the turn of the 20th century in Budapest: Theodore von Kármán, Leo Szilard, Eugene Wigner, John von Neumann, and Edward Teller, became a special group often referred to as the ... More


Manhattan Project Time Machine

Lindsey A. Freeman

in Longing for the Bomb: Oak Ridge and Atomic Nostalgia

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9781469622378
eISBN:
9781469623177
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469622378.003.0008
Subject:
Sociology, Science, Technology and Environment

This chapter explores the growth of tourism in former nuclear sites, as the former sites of the Manhattan Project, as well as its progeny—nuclear storage facilities and aging apparatuses from Cold ... More


Atomic Snapshots

Lindsey A. Freeman

in Longing for the Bomb: Oak Ridge and Atomic Nostalgia

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9781469622378
eISBN:
9781469623177
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469622378.003.0009
Subject:
Sociology, Science, Technology and Environment

This chapter presents a photo of J. Robert Oppenheimer, as well as the author’s mother and grandfather, in examining Ed Westcott’s photography concerning the Manhattan Project. His photographs stare ... More


From Hiroshima to Normalization

Lindsey A. Freeman

in Longing for the Bomb: Oak Ridge and Atomic Nostalgia

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9781469622378
eISBN:
9781469623177
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469622378.003.0006
Subject:
Sociology, Science, Technology and Environment

This chapter narrates events in Oak Ridge following the Hiroshima Bombing, particularly when the secret war project had been broadcast throughout the world. For Oak Ridgers, the day of bombing was a ... More


Atomic Tracings:: Radioisotopes in Biology and Medicine

Angela N. H. Creager

in Science and Technology in the Global Cold War

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780262027953
eISBN:
9780262326100
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262027953.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The U.S. government developed atomic energy for peacetime after World War II in the form of radioactive isotopes, produced in a former Manhattan Project reactor and distributed to civilian ... More


Joseph Rotblat, Pugwash Pioneer

Mary Palevsky

in Atomic Fragments: A Daughter's Questions

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780520220553
eISBN:
9780520923652
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520220553.003.0007
Subject:
Anthropology, American and Canadian Cultural Anthropology

In October 1995, Joseph Rotblat and the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs had received the Nobel Peace Prize. The Nobel committee recognized Pugwash's work in bringing together ... More


David Hawkins, Chronicler of Los Alamos

Mary Palevsky

in Atomic Fragments: A Daughter's Questions

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780520220553
eISBN:
9780520923652
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520220553.003.0005
Subject:
Anthropology, American and Canadian Cultural Anthropology

During the time of the interview, David Hawkins was a Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at the University of Colorado. This chapter presents how he came to know Robert Oppenheimer and ... More


Longing for the Bomb: Oak Ridge and Atomic Nostalgia

Lindsey A. Freeman

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9781469622378
eISBN:
9781469623177
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469622378.001.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Science, Technology and Environment

Tucked into the folds of Appalachia and kept off all commercial maps, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, was created for the Manhattan Project by the U.S. government in the 1940s. The city has experienced the ... More


Herbert F. York, Inside History

Mary Palevsky

in Atomic Fragments: A Daughter's Questions

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780520220553
eISBN:
9780520923652
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520220553.003.0008
Subject:
Anthropology, American and Canadian Cultural Anthropology

Herbert York was the first director of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the first chancellor of the University of California at San Diego. During World War II, the University of ... More


Life Atomic: A History of Radioisotopes in Science and Medicine

Angela N. H. Creager

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780226017808
eISBN:
9780226017945
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226017945.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

After World War II, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) began mass-producing radioisotopes in its Oak Ridge reactor, sending out nearly 64,000 shipments of radioactive materials to scientists and ... More


Philip Morrison, Witness to Atomic History

Mary Palevsky

in Atomic Fragments: A Daughter's Questions

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780520220553
eISBN:
9780520923652
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520220553.003.0004
Subject:
Anthropology, American and Canadian Cultural Anthropology

On December 6, 1945, four months after Hiroshima, physicist Philip Morrison testified before Senator Brien McMahon's Special Committee on Atomic Energy, created to investigate problems relating to ... More


Barbarossa and the Bomb: Two Cases of Soviet intelligence in World War ll

David Holloway

in Secret Intelligence in the European States System, 1918-1989

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780804783590
eISBN:
9780804788915
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804783590.003.0003
Subject:
History, European Modern History

In an unusually well-documented contribution on Russian secret intelligence, David Holloway posits reasons for Stalin’s unpreparedness in 1940-1941. This, it is fair to say, has long been an ... More


Epilogue Mosaic

Mary Palevsky

in Atomic Fragments: A Daughter's Questions

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780520220553
eISBN:
9780520923652
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520220553.003.0009
Subject:
Anthropology, American and Canadian Cultural Anthropology

The first section of this chapter aims to understand what happens to people with kind hearts and humanist feelings when they work on weapons of mass destruction, trying to examine the problem of ... More


Preservation Works: Success Stories in Space History

Lisa Westwood, Beth Laura O’Leary, and Milford Wayne Donaldson

in The Final Mission: Preserving NASA's Apollo Sites

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780813062464
eISBN:
9780813053004
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813062464.003.0010
Subject:
Archaeology, Historical Archaeology

“Preservation Works” provides examples of real case studies where historic preservation of space heritage has been successful, demonstrating potential routes for preservation. The chapter includes ... More


Cyclotrons

Angela N. H. Creager

in Life Atomic: A History of Radioisotopes in Science and Medicine

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780226017808
eISBN:
9780226017945
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226017945.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter focuses on developments in E. O. Lawrence’s Radiation Laboratory to illustrate the cyclotron-based system of radioisotope production. By 1940, biomedical uses of radioisotopes involved ... More


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