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The Crisis of the Absolute Monarchy: France from Old Regime to Revolution

Julian Swann and Joël Félix (eds)

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780197265383
eISBN:
9780191760433
Item type:
book
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197265383.001.0001
Subject:
History, European Early Modern History

For generations of historians, 1789 was a defining moment in world history and it has been said to mark, amongst other things, the triumph of the bourgeoisie, the birth of modernity, the rise of ... More


From Servant of the King to ‘Idol of the Nation’: The Breakdown of Personal Monarchy in Louis XVI’s France

Julian Swann

in The Crisis of the Absolute Monarchy: France from Old Regime to Revolution

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780197265383
eISBN:
9780191760433
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197265383.003.0004
Subject:
History, European Early Modern History

The absolute monarchy was a personal monarchy and during the reign of Louis XIV, the king established a tradition that the king should act as his ‘own first minister’, coordinating the work of his ... More


How, and How Not, to Use the Concept of Crisis in the Reign of Louis XVI*

Jean-Pierre Poussou

in The Crisis of the Absolute Monarchy: France from Old Regime to Revolution

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780197265383
eISBN:
9780191760433
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197265383.003.0002
Subject:
History, European Early Modern History

This chapter demonstrates that the idea of a ‘general crisis’ affecting the whole of Louis XVI's reign is unsustainable. This is particularly true of the French economy, where the influence of Ernest ... More


A Model of Conduct from the Age of Chivalry? Honour, International Decline and the End of the Bourbon Monarchy

Hamish Scott

in The Crisis of the Absolute Monarchy: France from Old Regime to Revolution

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780197265383
eISBN:
9780191760433
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197265383.003.0010
Subject:
History, European Early Modern History

The decline of France as a European power is an established eighteenth-century development and one that was laid at the Bourbon monarchy's door by its critics during the ancien régime. Within a ... More


Introduction: The Crisis of the Absolute Monarchy*

Julian Swann

in The Crisis of the Absolute Monarchy: France from Old Regime to Revolution

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780197265383
eISBN:
9780191760433
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197265383.003.0001
Subject:
History, European Early Modern History

This chapter examines the historiographical debates inspired by the French Revolution, discussing how the impact of the Revisionist attack on the social (or Marxist) interpretation led to a richer, ... More


The Cultural Origins of the French Revolution

T. C. W. BLANNING

in The Culture of Power and the Power of Culture: Old Regime Europe 1660–1789

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198227458
eISBN:
9780191678707
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198227458.003.0009
Subject:
History, European Early Modern History, Cultural History

This chapter begins by examining the recent origin of French musical genre, being ironically the creation of an Italian, Jean-Baptiste Lully né Giovanni Battista Lull. The genre did not die with the ... More


The Problem with Necker’s Compte Rendu au roi (1781)

Joël Félix

in The Crisis of the Absolute Monarchy: France from Old Regime to Revolution

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780197265383
eISBN:
9780191760433
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197265383.003.0006
Subject:
History, European Early Modern History

Despite its iconic status, Necker's Compte-rendu au roi is one of the most debated but least understood historical documents of the Ancien Regime. This chapter challenges the assumption that the ... More


The Religion of Versailles

John McManners

in Church and Society in Eighteenth-Century France Volume 1: The Clerical Establishment and its Social Ramifications

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198270034
eISBN:
9780191600685
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198270038.003.0003
Subject:
Religion, Church History

The château of Versailles housed a sizeable ecclesiastical establishment, of which the most important was the grand aumônier. Religious life at court followed an elaborate routine of ‘boring ... More


Overture to Revolution: The 1787 Assembly of Notables and the Crisis of France's Old Regime

John Hardman

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199585779
eISBN:
9780191595325
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199585779.001.0001
Subject:
History, European Modern History, Political History

The Assembly of Notables which met between 22 February and 25 May 1787 was a major turning point in French, even world history: it was the first link in an unbroken chain which led to the French ... More


The Coronation: Reflections on the Allegiance of the Clergy

John McManners

in Church and Society in Eighteenth-Century France Volume 1: The Clerical Establishment and its Social Ramifications

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198270034
eISBN:
9780191600685
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198270038.003.0002
Subject:
Religion, Church History

The coronation ceremony of Louis XVI in 1775, described in detail, illustrates the sacred character of the French monarchy and the interdependence of Church and State. The multitudinous official ... More


The Once and Only Pitiful King

Julia V. Douthwaite

in The Frankenstein of 1790 and Other Lost Chapters from Revolutionary France

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780226160580
eISBN:
9780226160634
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226160634.003.0004
Subject:
Literature, 18th-century Literature

King Louis XVI’s disgrace on the night of June 21, 1791 was an event that formed a spring from which polemic, fiction, and caricature drew their inspiration. Louis’ arrest brought about a wave of ... More


The Maréchal de Castries and the Pre-Revolution

Munro Price

in The Crisis of the Absolute Monarchy: France from Old Regime to Revolution

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780197265383
eISBN:
9780191760433
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197265383.003.0005
Subject:
History, European Early Modern History

The actions and writings during the pre-revolution of the maréchal de Castries, minister of the marine from 1780 to 1787, shed significant new light on the absolute monarchy at the moment of its ... More


Unforeseen Necessities: The Government and Venality, 1768–1788

William Doyle

in Venality: The Sale of Offices in Eighteenth-Century France

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198205364
eISBN:
9780191676598
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198205364.003.0005
Subject:
History, European Early Modern History

No serious attempt was ever made by ministers of ancien régime France to eliminate venality from public life. It is true that, to the public at large, the spectacular attacks of René Nicolas Charles ... More


Conclusion and Epilogue 1787–89: Continuity and Rupture

John Hardman

in Overture to Revolution: The 1787 Assembly of Notables and the Crisis of France's Old Regime

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199585779
eISBN:
9780191595325
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199585779.003.0011
Subject:
History, European Modern History, Political History

The Conclusion examines the links between the Assembly of Notables and the Revolution of 1789. There are obvious continuities between Calonne's programme and the legislation of the National Assembly: ... More


The Frankenstein of 1790 and Other Lost Chapters from Revolutionary France

Julia V. Douthwaite

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780226160580
eISBN:
9780226160634
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226160634.001.0001
Subject:
Literature, 18th-century Literature

The French Revolution brings to mind violent mobs, the guillotine, and Madame Defarge, but it was also a publishing revolution: more than 1,200 novels were published between 1789 and 1804, when ... More


Towards a Grudging Toleration, 1774–1789

John McManners

in Church and Society in Eighteenth-Century France Volume 2: The Religion of the People and the Politics of Religion

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198270041
eISBN:
9780191600692
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198270046.003.0026
Subject:
Religion, Church History

By the beginning of Louis XVI's reign the Huguenots of the Desert had come to see themselves as loyal subjects of the French king, and many of the Catholic parish clergy acquiesced in a ‘patchwork ... More


Idol of the Nation: Ministerial Disgrace in the Reign of Louis XVI

Julian Swann

in Exile, Imprisonment, or Death: The Politics of Disgrace in Bourbon France, 1610-1789

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2017
ISBN:
9780198788690
eISBN:
9780191830778
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198788690.003.0013
Subject:
History, European Early Modern History

Absolute monarchy as practiced since the time of Louis XIV involved the king acting as his own first minister, the royal master directing ministerial servants whose office was to be treated almost as ... More


The Sacred Heart and the Counter-Revolution in the Vendée

Raymond Jonas

in France and the Cult of the Sacred Heart: An Epic Tale for Modern Times

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520221369
eISBN:
9780520924017
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520221369.003.0005
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter talks about the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the events that made up the counter-revolution in the Vendée. The first section presents a narration of two events that involved King Louis XVI ... More


The Crisis of the Nobility at the Twilight of the Monarchy*

Michel Figeac

in The Crisis of the Absolute Monarchy: France from Old Regime to Revolution

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780197265383
eISBN:
9780191760433
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197265383.003.0014
Subject:
History, European Early Modern History

The history of the French nobility has long been symptomatic with that of the Revolution, and this chapter takes a fresh look at the state of the second estate in the years preceding 1789. Confronted ... More


Aristocracy Abolished: The Destruction of Noble Power

William Doyle

in Aristocracy and its Enemies in the Age of Revolution

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199559855
eISBN:
9780191701788
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199559855.003.0008
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter focuses on the abolition of noble power. Arthur Young wrote something about the end of revolution after witnessing the end of separate orders on June 27. Louis XVI had been frightened by ... More


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