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History, Literature, and Identity: Four Centuries of Sikh Tradition

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780198070740
eISBN:
9780199080427
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198070740.001.0001
Subject:
Religion, Sikhism

This book presents a comprehensive account of Sikh history and tradition, beginning with the founding of the community to the impact of modernity on Sikh institutions in the Punjab. It discusses ... More


Introduction

J.S. Grewal

in History, Literature, and Identity: Four Centuries of Sikh Tradition

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780198070740
eISBN:
9780199080427
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198070740.003.0001
Subject:
Religion, Sikhism

The Sikhs produced a wealth of literature during the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries. A historical analysis of this literature can help elucidate the Sikh tradition and better understand Sikh ... More


Conclusion

Purnima Dhavan

in When Sparrows Became Hawks: The Making of the Sikh Warrior Tradition, 1699-1799

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199756551
eISBN:
9780199918881
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199756551.003.0008
Subject:
Religion, Sikhism

When the leadership, culture, and religious philosophy of the Khalsa Sikhs is examined against the changing political and social contexts of eighteenth-century Panjab, it becomes clear that Khalsa ... More


When Sparrows Became Hawks: The Making of the Sikh Warrior Tradition, 1699-1799

Purnima Dhavan

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199756551
eISBN:
9780199918881
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199756551.001.0001
Subject:
Religion, Sikhism

This study interrogates the dominant historiography about the origins and early history of the Sikh warrior community, the Khalsa. Contrary to the commonly accepted belief that the distinctive ... More


Sovereignty of the Third Panth: Bhangu’s Gurū-Panth Prakāsh

J.S. Grewal

in History, Literature, and Identity: Four Centuries of Sikh Tradition

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780198070740
eISBN:
9780199080427
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198070740.003.0014
Subject:
Religion, Sikhism

Gurū Panth Prakāsh, finalized by Ratan Singh Bhangu in 1841, deals with the true source of Sikh sovereignty. Bhangu links the issue of sovereignty with the creation of the ... More


Introduction: The Origins of the Khalsa

Purnima Dhavan

in When Sparrows Became Hawks: The Making of the Sikh Warrior Tradition, 1699-1799

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199756551
eISBN:
9780199918881
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199756551.003.0001
Subject:
Religion, Sikhism

This chapter questions the conventional understanding of the creation of the Khalsa warrior community. The argument that Khalsa culture and practices emerged fully formed during the lifetime of Guru ... More


The Making of a Sikh Sardar: Two Jassa Singhs and The Place of Sikhs in the Eighteenth-Century Military Labor Market

Purnima Dhavan

in When Sparrows Became Hawks: The Making of the Sikh Warrior Tradition, 1699-1799

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199756551
eISBN:
9780199918881
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199756551.003.0004
Subject:
Religion, Sikhism

Two martial traditions existed by the mid-eighteenth century within the Khalsa. Peasants had had a history of earning livelihoods as soldiers in the armies of local chiefs and Mughal officers. As ... More


Sikh Children’s Literature and Identity*

Toby B. Johnson

in Sikhism in Global Context

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780198075547
eISBN:
9780199082056
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198075547.003.0013
Subject:
Religion, Sikhism

This chapter describes the educational role of Sikh children’s literature (such as the Amar Chitra Katha comic books) and its influence on the development of a Sikh identity among the young. It ... More


Sikhism in a Global Context: The Legacy of History and Contemporary Challenges*

N. Gerald Barrier

in Sikhism in Global Context

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780198075547
eISBN:
9780199082056
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198075547.003.0002
Subject:
Religion, Sikhism

This chapter explores the legacy of history and migration to understand contemporary challenges to Sikhism in the global context. When the Sikhs settle abroad, tensions between their former and new ... More


Triumph of the Khalsa: The Vār Bhagautī of ‘Gurdas’

J.S. Grewal

in History, Literature, and Identity: Four Centuries of Sikh Tradition

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780198070740
eISBN:
9780199080427
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198070740.003.0010
Subject:
Religion, Sikhism

The last composition in the Vārān Bhai Gurdas was written by ‘Gurdas’, who refers to his work as Vār Bhagautī. The Vār has also been associated with Guru Gobind Singh. Some manuscripts contain a ... More


The Guru-Khalsa: Sainapat’s Srī Gur Sobhā

J.S. Grewal

in History, Literature, and Identity: Four Centuries of Sikh Tradition

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780198070740
eISBN:
9780199080427
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198070740.003.0011
Subject:
Religion, Sikhism

In Srī Gur Sobhā, Sainapat focuses on the Khalsa of Guru Gobind Singh and chronicles the battles and expeditions based on the Bachittar Nātak. In his account of the Khalsa, Sainapat declared that the ... More


The Singh Way of Life: The Rahitnāmas

J.S. Grewal

in History, Literature, and Identity: Four Centuries of Sikh Tradition

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780198070740
eISBN:
9780199080427
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198070740.003.0012
Subject:
Religion, Sikhism

One of the earliest Rahitnāmas is the work popularly known as the Tankhānāma of Bhai Nand Lal. In this composition, the author uses the terms ‘Khalsa’ and ‘Singh’ for the Sikhs, suggesting that the ... More


The Sikh Faith and the Khalsa Panth: Chhibber’s Bansāvalīnāma

J.S. Grewal

in History, Literature, and Identity: Four Centuries of Sikh Tradition

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780198070740
eISBN:
9780199080427
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198070740.003.0013
Subject:
Religion, Sikhism

According to Rattan Singh Jaggi, there are two opposing evaluations of Bansāvalīnāma Dasān Pātshāhīan Kā written by Kesar Singh Chhibber: one based on extreme scepticism and the other which borders ... More


Persecution of the Sikhs and the Reorganization of the Khalsa Army

Khushwant Singh

in A History of the Sikhs: Volume 1: 1469-1838

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
October 2012
ISBN:
9780195673081
eISBN:
9780199080601
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195673081.003.0007
Subject:
Religion, Sikhism

This chapter talks about the persecution of the Sikhs shortly after Banda Bahadur's execution, emergence of Sarbat Khalsa, and the reorganization of the Khalsa army. Sikh persecution intensified, ... More


Redefining The Ritual Drama: The Feminization of Ritual

Doris R. Jakobsh

in Relocating Gender in Sikh History

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
October 2012
ISBN:
9780195679199
eISBN:
9780199081950
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195679199.003.0008
Subject:
Religion, Sikhism

While the Tat Khalsa position benefitted greatly from the institutional support of the British Raj, not all Sikhs agreed with their assertion that only those initiated into the Khalsa in accordance ... More


Conclusions

Doris R. Jakobsh

in Relocating Gender in Sikh History

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
October 2012
ISBN:
9780195679199
eISBN:
9780199081950
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195679199.003.0009
Subject:
Religion, Sikhism

This chapter presents an examination of women's agency, both from within and outside the Sikh reform movement. The author notes that her book has been conceived upon the notion that gender is a fluid ... More


Sikh Materialities

Anne Murphy

in The Materiality of the Past: History and Representation in the Sikh Tradition

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199916276
eISBN:
9780199980253
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199916276.003.0002
Subject:
Religion, Sikhism

This chapter discusses texts as physical manifestations of the word of the Guru; objects used or gifted by the Guru; sites associated with the Guru in a Sikh historical landscape; the markers of the ... More


Early Life and Career of Master Tara Singh: (1885–1919)

J.S. Grewal

in Master Tara Singh in Indian History: Colonialism, Nationalism, and the Politics of Sikh Identity

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
March 2018
ISBN:
9780199467099
eISBN:
9780199089840
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199467099.003.0004
Subject:
History, Indian History

In the early 1890s, Master Tara Singh (Nanak Chand) was so impressed by the stories of Singh martyrs that he thought of becoming a Keshdhārī Singh. Initiated by Sant Attar Singh in 1901, Master Tara ... More


Master Tara Singh in the Akali Movement: (1920–3)

J.S. Grewal

in Master Tara Singh in Indian History: Colonialism, Nationalism, and the Politics of Sikh Identity

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
March 2018
ISBN:
9780199467099
eISBN:
9780199089840
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199467099.003.0005
Subject:
History, Indian History

The newspaper Akali, started by the radical Sikh leaders in June 1920, articulated their concern for the liberation of Khalsa College, Amritsar, the historic gurdwaras, and eventually the whole ... More


From the Pacifist Sikh to the Militant Khalsa

Khushwant Singh

in A History of the Sikhs: Volume 1: 1469-1838

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
October 2012
ISBN:
9780195673081
eISBN:
9780199080601
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195673081.003.0005
Subject:
Religion, Sikhism

This chapter examines the transition from the pacifist Sikh to the militant Khalsa. It provides a detailed account of Tegh Bahadur's son, Gobind Singh, and his efforts against the Mughals. Prior to ... More


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