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All the Dead Generations: Jean Toomer’s Dark Sister

Barbara Foley

in Jean Toomer: Race, Repression, and Revolution

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252038440
eISBN:
9780252096327
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252038440.003.0004
Subject:
Literature, African-American Literature

This chapter illustrates how Toomer appears to have gleaned about his family's history while he was conceiving and creating Cane. This material features the fabulous fortune gained and lost by his ... More


Vernacularizing Silence

Joshua L. Miller

in Accented America: The Cultural Politics of Multilingual Modernism

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195336993
eISBN:
9780199893997
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195336993.003.0005
Subject:
Literature, American, 20th Century Literature

African American modernists' works appropriated literary traditions as they sought to combat the lingering effects of postslavery in the United States, including systematic segregation, everyday ... More


“A Small Man in Big Spaces”: The New Negro, the Mestizo, andJean Toomer’s Southwest

Emily Lutenski

in Escape from New York: The New Negro Renaissance beyond Harlem

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780816677382
eISBN:
9781452947877
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Minnesota Press
DOI:
10.5749/minnesota/9780816677382.003.0007
Subject:
History, African-American History

This chapter reads Jean Toomer, an American writer and an important figure of the Harlem Renaissance and modernism, in the mestizo context of Greater Mexico and places him within the Harlem milieu ... More


Touching Naked Reality: Socialism, the Labor Movement, and the Embers of Revolution

Barbara Foley

in Jean Toomer: Race, Repression, and Revolution

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252038440
eISBN:
9780252096327
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252038440.003.0001
Subject:
Literature, African-American Literature

This chapter examines how Toomer's interest in class-conscious radical politics was at best transitory and immature. Drawing on his early left-wing journalism, correspondence, handwritten 1936 ... More


The Tight Cocoon: Class, Culture, and the New Negro

Barbara Foley

in Jean Toomer: Race, Repression, and Revolution

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252038440
eISBN:
9780252096327
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252038440.003.0002
Subject:
Literature, African-American Literature

This chapter looks at how Toomer was more intimately involved with the New Negro Movement than he was able to acknowledge in his early 1920s correspondence with white modernists. Toomer was ... More


The Experiment in America: Sectional Art and Literary Nationalism

Barbara Foley

in Jean Toomer: Race, Repression, and Revolution

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252038440
eISBN:
9780252096327
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252038440.003.0003
Subject:
Literature, African-American Literature

This chapter analyzes Toomer's relationship with the early 1920s modernists dubbing themselves “Young America”—particularly with novelist Waldo Frank, whose influential Our America (1919) advocated a ... More


“A Purple Fluid, Carbon-Charged”: <i>Jean Toomer’s Mutable Materials</i>

Catherine Keyser

in Artificial Color: Modern Food and Racial Fictions

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
December 2018
ISBN:
9780190673123
eISBN:
9780190673154
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190673123.003.0002
Subject:
Literature, 20th-century and Contemporary Literature

Jean Toomer worked as a soda jerk in high school over his grandmother’s objections and found inspiration in the soda fountain. Through it, he derived a metaphorical alternative to the one-drop rule, ... More


In the Land of Cotton: “Kabnis”

Barbara Foley

in Jean Toomer: Race, Repression, and Revolution

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252038440
eISBN:
9780252096327
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252038440.003.0005
Subject:
Literature, African-American Literature

This chapter focuses on “Kabnis,” which generally supplies the terminus, not the beginning, of most critical analyses of Cane. Composed in rough draft before Toomer left Middle Georgia in November ... More


Georgia on His Mind: Part 1 of

Barbara Foley

in Jean Toomer: Race, Repression, and Revolution

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252038440
eISBN:
9780252096327
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252038440.003.0006
Subject:
Literature, African-American Literature

This chapter analyzes how many of the texts in part 1 of Cane display Toomer's continuing attempt to incorporate Sempter/Sparta into the program for sectional art that had failed to achieve effective ... More


Black Flesh Is White Ash: Reframing Jean Toomer’s

Alix Beeston

in In and Out of Sight: Modernist Writing and the Photographic Unseen

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
December 2017
ISBN:
9780190690168
eISBN:
9780190690199
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190690168.003.0003
Subject:
Literature, American, 20th Century Literature

This chapter argues that Jean Toomer’s tactics of poetic and narrative visualization of the series of black female bodies in Cane (1923) correspond to the strategic reappropriation of lynching ... More


New Negro Husbands

Anastasia C. Curwood

in Stormy Weather: Middle-Class African American Marriages between the Two World Wars

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
July 2014
ISBN:
9780807834343
eISBN:
9781469603872
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/9780807868386_curwood.6
Subject:
History, African-American History

This chapter describes the ideal New Negro husband. After World War II, many men sought to claim the right to rule their households. The chapter examines three places where New Negro men constructed ... More


Black and Brown Worlds Heaving Upward: Part 2 of

Barbara Foley

in Jean Toomer: Race, Repression, and Revolution

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252038440
eISBN:
9780252096327
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252038440.003.0007
Subject:
Literature, African-American Literature

This chapter demonstrates how Toomer's critique of capitalist modernity comes to the fore in part 2 of Cane. Situated mostly in the nation's capital, the stories and poems here call into question the ... More


Animating <i>Cane</i>: Race, Affect, History and Jean Toomer

Julie Taylor

in Modernism and Affect

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780748693252
eISBN:
9781474412346
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748693252.003.0008
Subject:
Literature, Criticism/Theory

This chapter explores the Harlem Renaissance writer Jean Toomer’s critical deployment of a racist stereotype that links African American subjectivity to extreme emotional expressiveness. In his 1923 ... More


Make Them Black and Bid Them Sing: Musical Poetry, Racial Transformation, and the Harlem Renaissance

T. Austin Graham

in The Great American Songbooks: Musical Texts, Modernism, and the Value of Popular Culture

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199862115
eISBN:
9780199332748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199862115.003.0004
Subject:
Literature, American, 20th Century Literature

This chapter explores the notion of a sung poetics in relation to race, turning to Jean Toomer, Langston Hughes, and other poets of the Harlem Renaissance. Here, twentieth-century African-American ... More


The Collected Poems of Jean Toomer

Robert B. Jones and Margot Toomer Latimer (eds)

Published in print:
1988
Published Online:
July 2014
ISBN:
9780807842096
eISBN:
9781469616421
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/9781469616414_Jones
Subject:
Literature, American, 20th Century Literature

This volume is a collected edition of poems by Jean Toomer, the enigmatic American writer, Gurdjieffian guru, and Quaker convert who is perhaps best known for his 1923 lyrical narrative Cane. The ... More


Introduction

Barbara Foley

in Jean Toomer: Race, Repression, and Revolution

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252038440
eISBN:
9780252096327
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252038440.003.0009
Subject:
Literature, African-American Literature

This introductory chapter proposes that African American poet Jean Toomer's 1923 masterwork (Cane) cannot be understood apart from the upsurge of postwar antiracist political radicalism and its ... More


Jean Toomer: Race, Repression, and Revolution

Barbara Foley

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252038440
eISBN:
9780252096327
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252038440.001.0001
Subject:
Literature, African-American Literature

The 1923 publication of Cane established Jean Toomer as a modernist master and one of the key literary figures of the emerging Harlem Renaissance. Though critics and biographers alike have praised ... More


Coda: Black Super-Vaudeville: History and Form in

Barbara Foley

in Jean Toomer: Race, Repression, and Revolution

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252038440
eISBN:
9780252096327
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252038440.003.0008
Subject:
Literature, African-American Literature

This concluding chapter offers a brief consideration of the relationship between history and form in Cane. Given the wide range of interpretations of the text's parts, it comes as no surprise that ... More


The Aesthetic Period (1919–1921)

Robert B. Jones

in The Collected Poems of Jean Toomer

Published in print:
1988
Published Online:
July 2014
ISBN:
9780807842096
eISBN:
9781469616421
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9780807842096.003.0001
Subject:
Literature, American, 20th Century Literature

Thie part of the book includes poems which were marked by Imagism, improvisation, and experimentation. This period in Jean Toomer's work is termed the Aesthetic period. Between 1919 and 1921, Toomer ... More


The Christian Existential Period (1940–1955)

Robert B. Jones

in The Collected Poems of Jean Toomer

Published in print:
1988
Published Online:
July 2014
ISBN:
9780807842096
eISBN:
9781469616421
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9780807842096.003.0004
Subject:
Literature, American, 20th Century Literature

This part of the book includes the poetry by Toomer that derived from an espousal of Quaker religious philosophy. The poetry canon produced here constitutes a dramatization of consciousness, a ... More


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