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“Ambassadors in Tracksuits”

Matthew P. Llewellyn and John Gleaves

in The Rise and Fall of Olympic Amateurism

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252040351
eISBN:
9780252098772
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252040351.003.0005
Subject:
Sociology, Sport and Leisure

This chapter details the expanding globalization and commercialization of the Olympics in the 1930s. Emerging from the economic ruins of the Great Depression, authoritarian and totalitarian regimes ... More


The Legacy of Berlin 1936 and the German Past: Problems and Possibilities

Kay Schiller and Christopher Young

in The 1972 Munich Olympics and the Making of Modern Germany

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520262133
eISBN:
9780520947580
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520262133.003.0003
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter explores the impact of the controversial 1936 Berlin Games on Munich's hosting of the 1972 Olympics. It examines the relationship between the International Olympic Committiee (IOC) and ... More


The Amateur Apostle and the Cold War Games

Matthew P. Llewellyn and John Gleaves

in The Rise and Fall of Olympic Amateurism

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252040351
eISBN:
9780252098772
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252040351.003.0006
Subject:
Sociology, Sport and Leisure

This chapter focuses on International Olympic Committee (IOC) president Avery Brundage, who defended amateurism seemingly with religious conviction throughout his bureaucratic career. His deeply ... More


Introduction

Kay Schiller and Christopher Young

in The 1972 Munich Olympics and the Making of Modern Germany

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520262133
eISBN:
9780520947580
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520262133.003.0001
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter begins by discussing the bleakest day in the histories of the Olympic movement. It then notes that in the Federal Republic of the 1960s, the ducal focus on the past and the ... More


A Universal Dilemma

Matthew P. Llewellyn and John Gleaves

in The Rise and Fall of Olympic Amateurism

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252040351
eISBN:
9780252098772
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252040351.003.0003
Subject:
Sociology, Sport and Leisure

This chapter discusses how amateurism freely evolved into an organic and malleable construct as it spread and diffused around the globe. From its institutional seedbed in Britain, amateurism would ... More


The Chicago Bid to Host the 2016 Olympics: Much Promised, Little Learned

Larry Bennett, Michael Bennett, and Stephen Alexander

Larry Bennett, Roberta Garner, and Euan Hague (eds)

in Neoliberal Chicago

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780252040597
eISBN:
9780252099038
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252040597.003.0011
Subject:
Sociology, Urban and Rural Studies

The Chicago bid to host the 2016 Olympics represented a particular variety of neoliberal policy action: a low-cost physical plan, largely dependent on private financing. It is quite possible that ... More


The United States, the Soviet Union, and the Olympic Games

Toby C. Rider

in Cold War Games: Propaganda, the Olympics, and U.S. Foreign Policy

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252040238
eISBN:
9780252098451
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252040238.003.0003
Subject:
Sociology, Sport and Leisure

This chapter considers the politics of the Olympic Games. The international sporting system, within which the Olympics reside, had emerged in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries as a force of ... More


Speaking to the Spirit of the Games: Atlanta’s Rise to Olympic City

Maurice J. Hobson

in The Legend of the Black Mecca: Politics and Class in the Making of Modern Atlanta

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9781469635354
eISBN:
9781469635378
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469635354.003.0006
Subject:
History, African-American History

Chapter Five focuses on the calculated and concerted steps taken by Atlanta’s white business elite and black city government to bid for the Centennial Olympic Games. A diverse cohort of private ... More


The US vs. USSR: Gender Testing, Doping Checks, and Olympic Boycotts

Lindsay Parks Pieper

in Sex Testing: Gender Policing in Women's Sports

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252040221
eISBN:
9780252098444
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252040221.003.0006
Subject:
Society and Culture, Gender Studies

While the US–USSR rivalry dissipated somewhat in the 1970s, the two countries experienced an escalation of hostilities in the 1980s. Through athletic contests and strategic boycotts, the Olympics ... More


Is the Athlete “Right” or “Wrong”?: The IOC’s Chromosomal Construction of Womanhood, 1968–1972

Lindsay Parks Pieper

in Sex Testing: Gender Policing in Women's Sports

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252040221
eISBN:
9780252098444
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252040221.003.0004
Subject:
Society and Culture, Gender Studies

This chapter discusses how the international tensions that surfaced during the Cold War played a large role in the initial institution of sex verification at the 1968 Olympics. To remove the “wrong” ... More


“One of the Most Horrid Misuses of a Scientific Method”: The Development of a Protest

Lindsay Parks Pieper

in Sex Testing: Gender Policing in Women's Sports

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252040221
eISBN:
9780252098444
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252040221.003.0007
Subject:
Society and Culture, Gender Studies

Although the International Olympic Committee (IOC) sought to differentiate women from men, the methods employed repeatedly illustrated the difficulty in determining the exact composition of ... More


“Gender Testing <i>Per Se</i> Is No Longer Necessary”: The IAAF’s and the IOC’s Continued Control

Lindsay Parks Pieper

in Sex Testing: Gender Policing in Women's Sports

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252040221
eISBN:
9780252098444
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252040221.003.0008
Subject:
Society and Culture, Gender Studies

This chapter demonstrates how alternative requirements merely rendered gender verification moot. In 1992, the International Association of Athletics Federation (IAAF) terminated all mandatory gender ... More


“A Careful Inquiry to Establish Her Sex beyond a Doubt”: Sex/Gender Anxieties in Track and Field

Lindsay Parks Pieper

in Sex Testing: Gender Policing in Women's Sports

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252040221
eISBN:
9780252098444
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252040221.003.0002
Subject:
Society and Culture, Gender Studies

This chapter illustrates the sex-segregated framework of sport and highlights the historical threats to the sex/gender status quo. In the early twentieth century, track and field was the most popular ... More


Introduction

Matthew P. Llewellyn and John Gleaves

in The Rise and Fall of Olympic Amateurism

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252040351
eISBN:
9780252098772
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252040351.003.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Sport and Leisure

This introductory chapter sets out the book's purpose, which is to present a richly contextualized global history of the role of Olympic amateurism, from Coubertin's Olympic revival in 1894 through ... More


“East Germany’s Mighty Sports Machine”: Steroids, Nationalism, and Femininity Testing

Lindsay Parks Pieper

in Sex Testing: Gender Policing in Women's Sports

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252040221
eISBN:
9780252098444
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252040221.003.0005
Subject:
Society and Culture, Gender Studies

The International Olympic Committee (IOC) created its medical commission in order to deter athletes from consuming performance-enhancing substances and to bar sex/gender-transgressive women from ... More


Cold War Games: Propaganda, the Olympics, and U.S. Foreign Policy

Toby C. Rider

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252040238
eISBN:
9780252098451
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252040238.001.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Sport and Leisure

It is the early Cold War. The Soviet Union appears to be in irresistible ascendance and moves to exploit the Olympic Games as a vehicle for promoting international communism. In response, the United ... More


Sex Testing: Gender Policing in Women's Sports

Lindsay Parks Pieper

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252040221
eISBN:
9780252098444
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252040221.001.0001
Subject:
Society and Culture, Gender Studies

In 1968, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) implemented sex testing for female athletes at that year's Games. When it became clear that testing regimes failed to delineate a sex divide, the ... More


Introduction

Lindsay Parks Pieper

in Sex Testing: Gender Policing in Women's Sports

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252040221
eISBN:
9780252098444
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252040221.003.0001
Subject:
Society and Culture, Gender Studies

This introductory chapter sets out the book's purpose, which is to book explores the history of sex testing from the 1930s to the early 2000s. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) used different ... More


Epilogue: The Reintroduction of Gender Verification

Lindsay Parks Pieper

in Sex Testing: Gender Policing in Women's Sports

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252040221
eISBN:
9780252098444
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252040221.003.0009
Subject:
Society and Culture, Gender Studies

This chapter discusses the return of sex and gender testing in international sport. The International Association of Athletics Federation and International Olympic Committee (IOC) sponsored six ... More


The Sound of the Fury: The Olympic City through the Prism of Black Atlanta’s Expressive Culture

Maurice J. Hobson

in The Legend of the Black Mecca: Politics and Class in the Making of Modern Atlanta

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9781469635354
eISBN:
9781469635378
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469635354.003.0007
Subject:
History, African-American History

Chapter six focuses on Mayor Maynard Jackson’s creation of the City of Atlanta’s Bureau of Cultural Affairs, the first institution within city government dedicated to the support of artists, their ... More


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