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Social Class, Mental Ability, and Education

Henry Phelps Brown

in The Inequality of Pay

Published in print:
1979
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198851202
eISBN:
9780191596780
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198851200.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

This chapter studies the connection between social class, mental ability, education, and entry into employment, and is a further development of the previous chapter on intergenerational mobility ... More


Brain Enhancement and Other Magical Beliefs

Gary L. Wenk

in Your Brain on Food: How Chemicals Control Your Thoughts and Feelings

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780195388541
eISBN:
9780199863587
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388541.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Neuroendocrine and Autonomic

No drugs or nutrients are currently available that can reverse the primary cause of cognitive decline: normal aging. Also, it is currently impossible to enhance the function of a normal brain. These ... More


Looking Down on Human Intelligence: From Psychometrics to the Brain

Ian Deary

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198524175
eISBN:
9780191712531
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524175.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Human mental ability differences have a hierarchical structure, and may be viewed at levels from general ability (g) to specific abilities. Ability differences show moderate stability across the ... More


Den Finger in die Wunde legen: Avoiding ‘cargo cult science’ and ‘the glass bead game’

Ian J. Deary

in Looking Down on Human Intelligence: From Psychometrics to the Brain

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198524175
eISBN:
9780191712531
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524175.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter acts as a resume of the book, and looks ahead to what the future holds with regard to understanding the cognitive and biological foundations of intelligence differences.


Taxation and Well‐being

Bernard Van Praag

in Happiness Quantified: A Satisfaction Calculus Approach

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199226146
eISBN:
9780191718595
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199226146.003.0012
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Behavioural Economics

This chapter examines the feasibility of a lump-sum tax based on ‘ability’, defined as a function of IQ and education. Empirical research on a Dutch database shows that shifting from income-based to ... More


The Once Raging and Still Smoldering Pygmalion Controversy

Lee Jussim

in Social Perception and Social Reality: Why Accuracy Dominates Bias and Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780195366600
eISBN:
9780199933044
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195366600.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter reviews the earliest empirical research demonstrating that false beliefs sometimes create their own realities through self-fulfilling prophecies. First, it reviews the earliest work on ... More


Music Instruction and Children’s Intellectual Development: The Educational Context of Music Participation

Eugenia Costa-Giomi

in Music, Health, and Wellbeing

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199586974
eISBN:
9780191738357
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199586974.003.0023
Subject:
Psychology, Music Psychology, Health Psychology

This chapter provides a historical overview of research on the intellectual benefits of music and the most popular interpretations of the research findings. After questioning such interpretations and ... More


Criminal Genius: A Portrait of High-IQ Offenders

James C. Oleson

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780520282414
eISBN:
9780520958098
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520282414.001.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

For one hundred years, criminologists have studied crime and intelligence, concluding that offenders possess IQ scores eight to ten points below those of non-offenders. Although the criminal genius ... More


All-American Newsreel

Kathryn Talalay

in Composition in Black and White: The Life of Philippa Schuyler

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195113938
eISBN:
9780199853816
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195113938.003.0006
Subject:
History, Cultural History

This chapter talks about the genius of Philippa, well-known at a very young age as the “three-year-old colored kid in Harlem”, because at her age she could already read, write, and spell words. ... More


The Genetics of Human Mental Function

William R. Clark and Michael Grunstein

in Are We Hardwired?: The Role of Genes in Human Behavior

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195178005
eISBN:
9780199893331
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195178005.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The question of the role of genes in human intelligence is one of the most complex and controversial in the entire field of human genetics. Firstly, there is no adequate definition of human ... More


Evolutionary Explanation: Between Science and Values

Ullica Segerstråle

in Missing the Revolution: Darwinism for social scientists

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195130027
eISBN:
9780199893874
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195130027.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology

The sociobiology debate, which has often been interpreted as a political controversy between conservative hereditarians and progressive culturalists (or environmentalists), in fact represented a ... More


Rationality and the Reflective Mind

Keith Stanovich

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195341140
eISBN:
9780199894307
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195341140.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Cognitive Models and Architectures

This book attempts to resolve the Great Rationality Debate in cognitive science—the debate about how much irrationality to ascribe to human cognition. It shows how the insights of dual-process theory ... More


The Role of Intelligence in the Diversity of Learners

Shane N. Phillipson

in Learning and Teaching in the Chinese Classroom: Responding to Individual Needs

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9789888083428
eISBN:
9789882209848
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:
10.5790/hongkong/9789888083428.003.0004
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

This chapter focuses on developing an understanding of ‘intelligence’ and how this understanding can be used for enhancing learning.


The Assessment of Rational Thought

Keith E. Stanovich, Richard F. West, and Maggie E. Toplak

in Rationality and the Reflective Mind

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195341140
eISBN:
9780199894307
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195341140.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Cognitive Models and Architectures

The data presented in this book indicate that the rankings of individuals on assessments of rational thinking would be different from rankings on intelligence. At present, of course, there is no ... More


Race, Genetics, and IQ: Interactionin the IQ Controversy

James Tabery

in Beyond Versus: The Struggle to Understand the Interaction of Nature and Nurture

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780262027373
eISBN:
9780262324144
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262027373.003.0003
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

In 1969, Arthur Jensen drew on heritability measures from behaviour genetics to infamously claim genetic differences between black and white Americans best explained the gap in IQ scores between ... More


I Must Not Think Bad Thoughts: Drive-by Essays on American Dread, American Dreams

Mark Dery

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780816677733
eISBN:
9781452948324
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Minnesota Press
DOI:
10.5749/minnesota/9780816677733.001.0001
Subject:
Society and Culture, Media Studies

Exploring the darkest corners of the national psyche and the nethermost regions of the self—the gothic, the grotesque, and the carnivalesque—this book aims to make sense of the cultural dynamics of ... More


Taxation and Well‐being

Bernard Van Praag

in Happiness Quantified: A Satisfaction Calculus Approach

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780198286547
eISBN:
9780191718601
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198286546.003.0012
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

This chapter examines the feasibility of a lump-sum tax based ‘ability’, defined as a function of IQ and education. Empirical research on a Dutch database shows that shifting from income-based to an ... More


Together Again: Emotion and Intelligence Reconciled

James R Averill

in The Science of Emotional Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195181890
eISBN:
9780199847860
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195181890.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

The split between emotion and intelligence is ancient. Throughout the ages, attempts at reconciliation have been made, but with mixed success. This time, emotion and intelligence are together again, ... More


From problem families to the cycle of deprivation

John Welshman

in From transmitted deprivation to social exclusion: Policy, poverty, and parenting

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9781861348357
eISBN:
9781447302384
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781861348357.003.0003
Subject:
Sociology, Social Stratification, Inequality, and Mobility

This chapter attempts to explain the background to and timing of the cycle speech by tracing the longer-term continuities. It looks in particular at, first, Joseph's own family background and ... More


Twins and other kinship studies

N. J. Mackintosh

in Cyril Burt: Fraud or Framed?

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198523369
eISBN:
9780191688898
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523369.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Burt's paper ‘The genetic determination of differences in intelligence: a study of monozygotic twins reared together and apart’, published in 1966, provided the most systematic account of his data on ... More


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