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Breaking Symmetries

Gian Francesco Giudice

in A Zeptospace Odyssey: A Journey into the Physics of the LHC

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199581917
eISBN:
9780191723001
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199581917.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Symmetries play a fundamental role in modern physics. This chapter introduces this concept by discussing the meaning of symmetries in mathematics and in physics, explaining the significance of Lie ... More


The Higgs Boson Discovery

Michael Riordan, Lillian Hoddeson, and Adrienne W. Kolb

in Tunnel Visions: The Rise and Fall of the Superconducting Super Collider

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780226294797
eISBN:
9780226305837
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226305837.003.0008
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

After the United States and other nations joined the LHC project during the mid-1990s, CERN proceeded with construction of this multi-TeV proton-collider. Although a September 2008 disaster delayed ... More


Data at the LHC

John Campbell, Joey Huston, and Frank Krauss

in The Black Book of Quantum Chromodynamics: A Primer for the LHC Era

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
March 2018
ISBN:
9780199652747
eISBN:
9780191749148
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199652747.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Cross sections have been measured over 14 orders of magnitude at the LHC, with good agreement in general with predictions from QCD and the Standard Model. The only grain of salt of this success story ... More


The Discovery of the Higgs Boson

Pauline Gagnon

in Who Cares about Particle Physics?: Making Sense of the Higgs Boson, the Large Hadron Collider and CERN

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780198783244
eISBN:
9780191826269
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198783244.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Finding a Higgs boson is like making maple syrup, where one must boil a huge volume of sap from maple trees to extract a few drops of syrup. The sugar represents the signal, and water the background. ... More


A Zeptospace Odyssey: A Journey into the Physics of the LHC

Gian Francesco Giudice

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199581917
eISBN:
9780191723001
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199581917.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

It is at this very moment that the most ambitious scientific experiment of all time is about to begin, and yet its precise aims are rather poorly understood by the general public. This book provides ... More


The Higgs boson

G. Barr, R. Devenish, R. Walczak, and T. Weidberg

in Particle Physics in the LHC Era

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198748557
eISBN:
9780191811203
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198748557.003.0012
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter starts with a simple introduction to gauge invariance and spontaneous symmetry breaking. An elementary introduction to Lagrangians in classical and quantum mechanics is given. A ... More


Contributions of Calorimetry to the Advancement of Science

Richard Wigmans

in Calorimetry: Energy Measurement in Particle Physics

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780198786351
eISBN:
9780191828652
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198786351.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, Nuclear and Plasma Physics

In this last chapter, some scientific discoveries are described in which calorimeters have played a crucial role. The chosen examples were all awarded a Nobel prize in physics. The first example ... More


What about the Higgs Boson?

Pauline Gagnon

in Who Cares about Particle Physics?: Making Sense of the Higgs Boson, the Large Hadron Collider and CERN

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780198783244
eISBN:
9780191826269
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198783244.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

How do fundamental particles acquire mass? To understand this, three elements are needed: a mathematical mechanism, a physical field and a new particle, the Higgs boson. The Brout–Englert–Higgs ... More


The Edge of the Abyss

Steven E. Vigdor

in Signatures of the Artist: The Vital Imperfections That Make Our Universe Habitable

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
March 2018
ISBN:
9780198814825
eISBN:
9780191852954
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198814825.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Chapter 8 deals with the apparent perching of the physical vacuum state in the universe on the edge between stability and meta-stability, at least within the standard model, in light of the mass of ... More


Origins of the Super Collider

Michael Riordan, Lillian Hoddeson, and Adrienne W. Kolb

in Tunnel Visions: The Rise and Fall of the Superconducting Super Collider

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780226294797
eISBN:
9780226305837
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226305837.003.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The idea for the Superconducting Super Collider emerged from high-energy physicists’ ambitions to build a next-generation particle accelerator to enable research on elementary particles at the ... More


Introduction

John Campbell, Joey Huston, and Frank Krauss

in The Black Book of Quantum Chromodynamics: A Primer for the LHC Era

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
March 2018
ISBN:
9780199652747
eISBN:
9780191749148
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199652747.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter serves as a very brief overview of the physics of the LHC era and the basic elements of the accelerator and experiments. It also provides a user’s guide to the book and succinct ... More


Without it there’s Nothing: The Necessity of Simulation in the Higgs Search

Margaret Morrison

in Reconstructing Reality: Models, Mathematics, and Simulations

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780199380275
eISBN:
9780199380299
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199380275.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, General

This chapter explores the extensive use of simulation in the search for the Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Too often we assume that although simulation can be an important part of ... More


Decisions, Decisions: Inductive Risk and the Higgs Boson

Kent W. Staley

in Exploring Inductive Risk: Case Studies of Values in Science

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
June 2017
ISBN:
9780190467715
eISBN:
9780190467753
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190467715.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Much of the discussion of the argument from inductive risk (AIR) centers on scientific research that has relevance to policymaking. To emphasize that inductive risk pervades science, this chapter ... More


Data at the TEVATRON

John Campbell, Joey Huston, and Frank Krauss

in The Black Book of Quantum Chromodynamics: A Primer for the LHC Era

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
March 2018
ISBN:
9780199652747
eISBN:
9780191749148
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199652747.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Before the LHC, there was the Tevatron, which ran at the high-energy frontier for approximately 25 years. Many of the modern analysis tools used at the LHC were first developed at the Tevatron. In ... More


Unifying Particle Physics with the Cosmology of the Primordial Universe

José Bernabéu and Adolfo Plasencia

in Is the Universe a Hologram?: Scientists Answer the Most Provocative Questions

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780262036016
eISBN:
9780262339308
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036016.003.0002
Subject:
Society and Culture, Technology and Society

The dialogue with physicist José Bernabéu firstly looks into why discovery of the Higgs boson has a spiritual dimension and is a great starting point for new discovery. It then moves on to discuss ... More


Reconstructing Reality: Models, Mathematics, and Simulations

Margaret Morrison

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780199380275
eISBN:
9780199380299
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199380275.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, General

Attempts to understand various aspects of the empirical world often rely on modelling processes that involve a reconstruction of the system(s) under investigation. Typically the reconstruction uses ... More


Twentieth Century and Beyond

Don S. Lemons

in Drawing Physics: 2,600 Years of Discovery From Thales to Higgs

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780262035903
eISBN:
9780262338745
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262035903.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

During this period the diagrams that convey the ideas of physics become more symbolic and less representational. Rutherford’s discovery of the atomic nucleus (1910), Niels Bohr’s model of the ... More


Particle Physics in the LHC Era

Giles Barr, Robin Devenish, Roman Walczak, and Tony Weidberg

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198748557
eISBN:
9780191811203
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198748557.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This book gives a modern introduction to particle physics. The main mathematical tools required for the rest of the book are developed in Chapter 2. A quantitative introduction to accelerator physics ... More


The Black Book of Quantum Chromodynamics: A Primer for the LHC Era

John Campbell, Joey Huston, and Frank Krauss

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
March 2018
ISBN:
9780199652747
eISBN:
9780191749148
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199652747.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

The LHC (Large Hadron Collider) will serve as the energy frontier for high-energy physics for the next 20 years. The highlight of the LHC running so far has been the discovery of the Higgs boson, but ... More


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