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Breaking Symmetries

Gian Francesco Giudice

in A Zeptospace Odyssey: A Journey into the Physics of the LHC

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199581917
eISBN:
9780191723001
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199581917.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Symmetries play a fundamental role in modern physics. This chapter introduces this concept by discussing the meaning of symmetries in mathematics and in physics, explaining the significance of Lie ... More


The Higgs Boson Discovery

Michael Riordan, Lillian Hoddeson, and Adrienne W. Kolb

in Tunnel Visions: The Rise and Fall of the Superconducting Super Collider

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780226294797
eISBN:
9780226305837
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226305837.003.0008
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

After the United States and other nations joined the LHC project during the mid-1990s, CERN proceeded with construction of this multi-TeV proton-collider. Although a September 2008 disaster delayed ... More


Data at the LHC

John Campbell, Joey Huston, and Frank Krauss

in The Black Book of Quantum Chromodynamics: A Primer for the LHC Era

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
March 2018
ISBN:
9780199652747
eISBN:
9780191749148
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199652747.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Cross sections have been measured over 14 orders of magnitude at the LHC, with good agreement in general with predictions from QCD and the Standard Model. The only grain of salt of this success story ... More


The Discovery of the Higgs Boson

Pauline Gagnon

in Who Cares about Particle Physics?: Making Sense of the Higgs Boson, the Large Hadron Collider and CERN

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780198783244
eISBN:
9780191826269
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198783244.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Finding a Higgs boson is like making maple syrup, where one must boil a huge volume of sap from maple trees to extract a few drops of syrup. The sugar represents the signal, and water the background. ... More


A Zeptospace Odyssey: A Journey into the Physics of the LHC

Gian Francesco Giudice

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199581917
eISBN:
9780191723001
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199581917.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

It is at this very moment that the most ambitious scientific experiment of all time is about to begin, and yet its precise aims are rather poorly understood by the general public. This book provides ... More


The Higgs boson

G. Barr, R. Devenish, R. Walczak, and T. Weidberg

in Particle Physics in the LHC Era

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198748557
eISBN:
9780191811203
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198748557.003.0012
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter starts with a simple introduction to gauge invariance and spontaneous symmetry breaking. An elementary introduction to Lagrangians in classical and quantum mechanics is given. A ... More


Contributions of Calorimetry to the Advancement of Science

Richard Wigmans

in Calorimetry: Energy Measurement in Particle Physics

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780198786351
eISBN:
9780191828652
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198786351.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, Nuclear and Plasma Physics

In this last chapter, some scientific discoveries are described in which calorimeters have played a crucial role. The chosen examples were all awarded a Nobel prize in physics. The first example ... More


What about the Higgs Boson?

Pauline Gagnon

in Who Cares about Particle Physics?: Making Sense of the Higgs Boson, the Large Hadron Collider and CERN

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780198783244
eISBN:
9780191826269
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198783244.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

How do fundamental particles acquire mass? To understand this, three elements are needed: a mathematical mechanism, a physical field and a new particle, the Higgs boson. The Brout–Englert–Higgs ... More


Origins of the Super Collider

Michael Riordan, Lillian Hoddeson, and Adrienne W. Kolb

in Tunnel Visions: The Rise and Fall of the Superconducting Super Collider

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780226294797
eISBN:
9780226305837
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226305837.003.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The idea for the Superconducting Super Collider emerged from high-energy physicists’ ambitions to build a next-generation particle accelerator to enable research on elementary particles at the ... More


The Edge of the Abyss

Steven E. Vigdor

in Signatures of the Artist: The Vital Imperfections That Make Our Universe Habitable

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
March 2018
ISBN:
9780198814825
eISBN:
9780191852954
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198814825.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Chapter 8 deals with the apparent perching of the physical vacuum state in the universe on the edge between stability and meta-stability, at least within the standard model, in light of the mass of ... More


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