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Limits of Commercial Investor-State Arbitration: The Need for Appellate Review

Jacques Werner

in Human Rights in International Investment Law and Arbitration

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199578184
eISBN:
9780191722561
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199578184.003.0006
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Public International Law

This chapter explains why investor-state arbitration is often wrongfully likened to international commercial arbitration among private parties. Investor-state arbitrations involve not only private ... More


The Origin of Goods: Rules of Origin in Regional Trade Agreements

Olivier Cadot, Antoni Estevadeordal, Akiko Suwa-Eisenmann, and Thierry Verdier (eds)

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780199290482
eISBN:
9780191603471
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199290482.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

Rules of Origin (RoO) are among the most important instruments in the negotiation and functioning of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs), designed to determine the eligibility of goods for preferential ... More


Trade in Goods: The GATT and the Other Agreements Regulating Trade in Goods

Petros Mavroidis

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199552139
eISBN:
9780191716591
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199552139.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

This book analyses the establishment and operation of international agreements regulating trade in goods, focusing on the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). The book outlines the history ... More


The United States and the GATT/WTO System

Gautam Sen

in US Hegemony and International Organizations: The United States and Multilateral Institutions

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199261437
eISBN:
9780191599309
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199261431.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

An examination is made of the relationship between the US and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), and its successor, the World Trade Organization, addressing the crucial question of ... More


Order and Justice in the International Trade System

John Toye

in Order and Justice in International Relations

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199251209
eISBN:
9780191599293
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199251207.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Toye focuses on issues relating to substantive justice as mediated through the international trade regime. He argues that the transition from the GATT to the WTO is leading to the continuation, ... More


Developing States and the End of the Cold War: Liberalization, Globalization, and Their Consequences

Gautam Sen

in The Third World Beyond the Cold War: Continuity and Change

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198295518
eISBN:
9780191599217
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198295510.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

The first section of this chapter examines the political and economic context of change in developing countries: the two themes are the evolution of the international economy, especially since the ... More


Ideas, Institutions, and Trade: The WTO and the Curious Role of EU Farm Policy in Trade Liberalization

Carsten Daugbjerg and Alan Swinbank

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199557752
eISBN:
9780191721922
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199557752.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Agriculture has a small, and declining, importance in employment and income generation within the EU, but a political importance well beyond its economic impact. The EU's common agricultural policy ... More


WTO Rules for Agricultural Trade: GATT 1947 and the URAA

Carsten Daugbjerg and Alan Swinbank

in Ideas, Institutions, and Trade: The WTO and the Curious Role of EU Farm Policy in Trade Liberalization

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199557752
eISBN:
9780191721922
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199557752.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Chapter 3 begins by accounting for the roots of agricultural exceptionalism in the GATT, and shows how it was spelt out in GATT trade rules. The remainder of the chapter examines the specific ... More


The SPS Agreements within the WTO System

Lukasz Gruszczynski

in Regulating Health and Environmental Risks under WTO Law: A Critical Analysis of the SPS Agreement

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199578924
eISBN:
9780191722646
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199578924.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Public International Law, Environmental and Energy Law

This chapter starts with a brief overview of the disciplines established by the SPS Agreement, including procedural issues such as allocation of burden of proof between the parties to the SPS dispute ... More


Risk Management Disciplines and the SPS Agreement

Lukasz Gruszczynski

in Regulating Health and Environmental Risks under WTO Law: A Critical Analysis of the SPS Agreement

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199578924
eISBN:
9780191722646
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199578924.003.0007
Subject:
Law, Public International Law, Environmental and Energy Law

This chapter concentrates on the risk management dimension of the SPS Agreement. It submits that the concept of risk management may be legitimately used in the context of the SPS Agreement, while its ... More


Adjudication in the GATT/WTO: Making General Exceptions in Trade Law

Ingo Venzke

in How Interpretation Makes International Law: On Semantic Change and Normative Twists

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199657674
eISBN:
9780191753114
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199657674.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Public International Law, Philosophy of Law

This chapter introduces international judicial institutions as weighty actors in international legal discourse. It shows how the practice of adjudication in international trade law has shaped the ... More


An Inside View of the CAP Reform Process: Explaining the MacSharry, Agenda 2000, and Fischler Reforms

Arlindo Cunha and Alan Swinbank

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199591572
eISBN:
9780191725579
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199591572.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, European Union, International Relations and Politics

From the outset, the European Union's common agricultural policy (CAP) was subject to scathingly criticism. Despite this, no substantial reform was undertaken until 1992. Then, in little more than a ... More


The Trading System in Perspective

Bernard M. Hoekman and Michel M. Kostecki

in The Political Economy of the World Trading System: WTO and Beyond

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294313
eISBN:
9780191596445
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019829431X.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

Chapter 1 makes up the first part of the book. It presents a brief historical overview of the evolution of the multilateral trading system and introduces the basic functions of the trade regime and ... More


The World Trade Organization

Bernard M. Hoekman and Michel M. Kostecki

in The Political Economy of the World Trading System: WTO and Beyond

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294313
eISBN:
9780191596445
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019829431X.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

An account is given of the organizational structure of the WTO (World Trade Organization), which was established as a multilateral trade organization on 1 January 1995 to encompass a modified GATT ... More


Negotiating Forum

Bernard M. Hoekman and Michel M. Kostecki

in The Political Economy of the World Trading System: WTO and Beyond

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294313
eISBN:
9780191596445
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019829431X.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

An analysis is made of the role of the WTO (World Trade Organization) as a forum for negotiations. Special attention is given to the concept of reciprocity, since this is a central element of ... More


Trade in Goods

Bernard M. Hoekman and Michel M. Kostecki

in The Political Economy of the World Trading System: WTO and Beyond

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294313
eISBN:
9780191596445
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019829431X.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

The main GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) rules on specific instruments of trade control––tariffs, quotas, subsidies, customs procedures, and product standards are described, and the ... More


Sector‐Specific Multilateral Trade Agreements

Bernard M. Hoekman and Michel M. Kostecki

in The Political Economy of the World Trading System: WTO and Beyond

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294313
eISBN:
9780191596445
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019829431X.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

This chapter looks at the major sector‐specific agreements that have been negotiated under the auspices of GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade), and in particular at agriculture, and ... More


Protection of Intellectual Property

Bernard M. Hoekman and Michel M. Kostecki

in The Political Economy of the World Trading System: WTO and Beyond

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294313
eISBN:
9780191596445
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019829431X.003.0009
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

An overview is provided of the economic rationales for protection of IPRs (intellectual property rights) and the reasons behind moves to adopt multilateral rules in this area. Some of the major ... More


The Forms of Governmental Action Covered by WTO Subsidy Rules

Luca Rubini

in The Definition of Subsidy and State Aid: WTO and EC Law in Comparative Perspective

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199533398
eISBN:
9780191714740
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199533398.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Public International Law, EU Law

This chapter discusses what forms of action actually constitute a subsidy or a State aid in the WTO and EC, and what forms of action should be considered as such. It begins with the examination of ... More


Non‐Discrimination in the GATT

Richard Pomfret

in The Economics of Regional Trading Arrangements

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199248872
eISBN:
9780191596797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199248877.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

Examines the treatment of discriminatory trade policies in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Despite a strong commitment to unconditional MFN treatment, the GATT allowed some ... More


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