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Organic Bodies, Part I: Nature and Structure

Justin E. H. Smith

in Divine Machines: Leibniz and the Sciences of Life

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691141787
eISBN:
9781400838721
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691141787.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter examines Leibniz's theory of organic body. In his early animal–economical texts, for the most part Leibniz is interested in the motion of animal bodies but not the force that underlies ... More


“Que les philosophes medicinassent”: Leibniz’s Encounter with Medicine and its Experimental Context

Justin E. H. Smith

in Divine Machines: Leibniz and the Sciences of Life

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691141787
eISBN:
9781400838721
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691141787.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter examines Leibniz's principal texts on medicine and related domains. In a broad sense, all of Leibniz's philosophy of biology is at the same time a philosophy of medicine. It begins with ... More


The Nature and Boundaries of Biological Species

Justin E. H. Smith

in Divine Machines: Leibniz and the Sciences of Life

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691141787
eISBN:
9781400838721
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691141787.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter shows that Leibniz's analysis of the nature and boundaries of biological species is very different from his now well-known nominalist account of the species of, for example, mathematical ... More


Leibniz on Spinoza’s Political Philosophy

Mogens Lerke

in Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy Volume VI

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199659593
eISBN:
9780191745218
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199659593.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter argues that Spinoza’s political philosophy played an important role in the fact that the mature Leibniz was a strict anti-Spinozist. Leibniz’s reading of Spinoza’s political texts ... More


The “Hydraulico-Pneumatico-Pyrotechnical Machine of Quasi-Perpetual Motion”: Leibniz on Animal Economy

Justin E. H. Smith

in Divine Machines: Leibniz and the Sciences of Life

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691141787
eISBN:
9781400838721
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691141787.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter focuses on Leibniz's contribution to “animal economy.” It discusses two distinct periods of Leibniz's direct, active contribution to animal economy: first, the period extending from 1677 ... More


The Divine Preformation of Organic Bodies

Justin E. H. Smith

in Divine Machines: Leibniz and the Sciences of Life

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691141787
eISBN:
9781400838721
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691141787.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter presents a comprehensive treatment of Leibniz's theory of divine preformation. It considers his contribution to generation theory in its philosophical context as a central problem of ... More


Introduction

Justin E. H. Smith

in Divine Machines: Leibniz and the Sciences of Life

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691141787
eISBN:
9781400838721
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691141787.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This introductory chapter begins with a discussion of the place of biology in early modern natural philosophy. “Biology,” though it did not yet exist in name, or even as a discrete domain of ... More


Organic Bodies, Part II: Context and Legacy

Justin E. H. Smith

in Divine Machines: Leibniz and the Sciences of Life

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691141787
eISBN:
9781400838721
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691141787.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter analyzes the scientific context in which Leibniz's unique theory of organic bodies took shape. It begins by focusing on the biographical and historical context of Leibniz's model of ... More


Games of Nature, the Emergence of Organic Form, and the Problem of Spontaneity

Justin E. H. Smith

in Divine Machines: Leibniz and the Sciences of Life

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691141787
eISBN:
9781400838721
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691141787.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter looks at three distinct cases of natural generativity: (i) the influence of the maternal imagination in fetal development, (ii) spontaneous generation, and (iii) the origins of ... More


Motion in Leibniz’s Middle Years: A Compatibilist Approach

Stephen Puryear

in Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy Volume VI

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199659593
eISBN:
9780191745218
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199659593.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter concerns two apparently incompatible strands in Leibniz's thought about motion during his ‘middle years’ (roughly the 1680s and 1690s). After presenting the textual evidence for these ... More


Making Nothing of “Almighty Space”

Paul Russell

in The Riddle of Hume's Treatise: Skepticism, Naturalism, and Irreligion

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195110333
eISBN:
9780199872084
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195110333.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter argues that one of Hume's principal objectives in his discussion of space and time is to discredit the Newtonian doctrine of absolute space and time, which had recently been given a ... More


Leibniz’s Ontology of Relations: A Last Word? 1

Massimo Mugnai

in Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy Volume VI

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199659593
eISBN:
9780191745218
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199659593.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Since Bertrand Russell's seminal A Critical Exposition of the Philosophy of Leibniz (1900), Leibniz's scholars continue to discuss the ontological nature that Leibniz attributed to relations. On one ... More


Toland, Leibniz, and Active Matter

Stewart Duncan

in Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy Volume VI

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199659593
eISBN:
9780191745218
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199659593.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Early in the eighteenth century Leibniz had several interactions with John Toland. These included discussions of materialism, which culminated with the consideration of Toland’s 1704 Letters to ... More


: The Critique of Judgment as a “True Apology” for Leibniz

Henry E. Allison

in Essays on Kant

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199647033
eISBN:
9780191741166
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199647033.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This essay argues that Kant's ironical remark in his response to Eberhard that “the Critique of Pure Reason might well be the true apology for Leibniz” is applicable (without irony) to the third ... More


Divine Machines: Leibniz and the Sciences of Life

Justin E. H. Smith

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691141787
eISBN:
9781400838721
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691141787.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Though it did not yet exist as a discrete field of scientific inquiry, biology was at the heart of many of the most important debates in seventeenth-century philosophy. Nowhere is this more apparent ... More


: Kant on Freedom of the Will

Henry E. Allison

in Essays on Kant

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199647033
eISBN:
9780191741166
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199647033.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This essay discusses the various conceptions of freedom to be found in Kant's texts, analyzes the connection between them and Kant's moral theory and epistemology, explores the contrast between the ... More


Epilogue

Nicholas Dew

in Orientalism in Louis XIV's France

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199234844
eISBN:
9780191715716
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199234844.003.0007
Subject:
History, European Modern History

The Epilogue draws together the themes of the preceding chapters, and offers concluding remarks. It is organized around the story of the philosopher G. W. Leibniz's attempts to verify Jesuit accounts ... More


What Is Life?: A Comparative Study of Ralph Cudworth and Nehemiah Grew

Raphaële Andrault

in The Life Sciences in Early Modern Philosophy

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199987313
eISBN:
9780199346240
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199987313.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

In the physico-theologies of R. Cudworth and N. Grew, “Life” and vital phenomena are used to prove the excellency of God’s creation and to refute both Cartesian mechanism and atheism. This paper ... More


Witsen, Leibniz, and the turn to Inner Eurasia

John Considine

in Small Dictionaries and Curiosity: Lexicography and Fieldwork in Post-Medieval Europe

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2016
ISBN:
9780198785019
eISBN:
9780191827211
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198785019.003.0018
Subject:
Linguistics, Lexicography, English Language

The languages of Inner Eurasia were among the material explored in the collection Noord en Oost Tartarye (1692) of the Dutch statesman and traveller Nicolaas Witsen, which included wordlists of Asian ... More


Polyglot collections from Gessner to Leibniz

John Considine

in Small Dictionaries and Curiosity: Lexicography and Fieldwork in Post-Medieval Europe

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2016
ISBN:
9780198785019
eISBN:
9780191827211
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198785019.003.0017
Subject:
Linguistics, Lexicography, English Language

Lhuyd’s use of comparative data was parallelled elsewhere in early modern Europe. From Gessner onwards, versions of the Lord’s Prayer in multiple languages were gathered, to satisfy the curiosity of ... More


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