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Introduction: “a long time in want of a bureau”

Mary Farmer-Kaiser

in Freedwomen and the Freedmen's Bureau: Race, Gender, and Public Policy in the Age of Emancipation

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2011
ISBN:
9780823232116
eISBN:
9780823234943
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fso/9780823232116.003.0001
Subject:
History, Social History

Congress established the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands—more commonly known as the Freedmen's Bureau—in March 1865. Upon its creation, the short-lived and ... More


“that the freedwomen … may rise to the dignity and glory of true womanhood”: The Men, Purpose, and Gendered Freedom of the Freedmen's Bureau

Mary Farmer-Kaiser

in Freedwomen and the Freedmen's Bureau: Race, Gender, and Public Policy in the Age of Emancipation

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2011
ISBN:
9780823232116
eISBN:
9780823234943
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fso/9780823232116.003.0002
Subject:
History, Social History

The realization of policy of the Freedmen's Bureau rested foremost on its officials at the local level. Using the gospel of free labor as the platform, bureau officials and ... More


“a weight of circumstances like millstones about their necks to drag and keep them down”: Freedwomen, Federal Relief, and the Freedmen's Bureau

Mary Farmer-Kaiser

in Freedwomen and the Freedmen's Bureau: Race, Gender, and Public Policy in the Age of Emancipation

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2011
ISBN:
9780823232116
eISBN:
9780823234943
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fso/9780823232116.003.0003
Subject:
History, Social History

In the immediate post-emancipation South, the Freedmen's Bureau limited its federal relief activities to temporarily aiding former slaves and loyal white refugees with rations ... More


The Freedmen’s Bureau Exception: The Triumph of Due (Adversarial) Process and the Dawn of Jim Crow

Amalia D. Kessler

in Inventing American Exceptionalism: The Origins of American Adversarial Legal Culture, 1800-1877

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780300198072
eISBN:
9780300224849
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300198072.003.0007
Subject:
Law, Legal History

Chapter 6 examines the Freedmen’s Bureau courts as an exception to the otherwise prevailing failure of conciliation courts to take root in American soil. Created to integrate the newly freed ... More


“strict justice for every man, woman, and child”: Gender, Justice, and the Freedmen's Bureau

Mary Farmer-Kaiser

in Freedwomen and the Freedmen's Bureau: Race, Gender, and Public Policy in the Age of Emancipation

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2011
ISBN:
9780823232116
eISBN:
9780823234943
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fso/9780823232116.003.0006
Subject:
History, Social History

Operating at best with a belief that freedmen and women required “a guardian rather than a jailor or hangman”, Freedmen's Bureau officials worked not only to defend the rights ... More


“to put forth almost superhuman efforts to regain their children”: Freedwomen, Parental Rights, and the Freedmen's Bureau

Mary Farmer-Kaiser

in Freedwomen and the Freedmen's Bureau: Race, Gender, and Public Policy in the Age of Emancipation

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2011
ISBN:
9780823232116
eISBN:
9780823234943
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fso/9780823232116.003.0005
Subject:
History, Social History

Emancipation and the legal recognition of the African-American family that it conferred had granted, at least in theory, black parents the right to claim and control their own ... More


Agents of Change: The Freedmen’s Bureau, 1867–1868

Steven E. Nash

in Reconstruction's Ragged Edge: The Politics of Postwar Life in the Southern Mountains

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9781469626246
eISBN:
9781469628080
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469626246.003.0005
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

Chapter 4 explores the role the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly referred to as the Freedmen’s Bureau) played in western North Carolina’s reconstruction. It may seem ironic ... More


Freedmen’s Hospitals: The Medical Division of the Freedmen’s Bureau

Jim Downs

in Sick from Freedom: African-American Illness and Suffering during the Civil War and Reconstruction

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199758722
eISBN:
9780190254438
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199758722.003.0004
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This chapter focuses on the bureaucracy and administrative hierarchy of the Medical Division of the Freedmen’s Bureau as well as Freedmen’s Hospitals, which were modeled on nineteenth-century asylums ... More


“the women are the controlling spirits”: Freedwomen, Free Labor, the Freedme's Bureau

Mary Farmer-Kaiser

in Freedwomen and the Freedmen's Bureau: Race, Gender, and Public Policy in the Age of Emancipation

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2011
ISBN:
9780823232116
eISBN:
9780823234943
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fso/9780823232116.003.0004
Subject:
History, Social History

In their efforts to transform the South into a free labor society, officials of the Freedmen's Bureau encountered an employment landscape complicated greatly by issues of ... More


No Longer Slaves: Black Mobilians and the Hard Struggle for Schools, 1865–1870

Hilary Green

in Educational Reconstruction

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780823270118
eISBN:
9780823270156
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823270118.003.0003
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This chapter explores black Mobilians’ hard struggle for the African American education after Confederate defeat. Intense white opposition led by Josiah Nott, arson, and antagonisms with Creoles of ... More


Innovations

Michele Landis Dauber

in The Sympathetic State: Disaster Relief and the Origins of the American Welfare State

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780226923482
eISBN:
9780226923505
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226923505.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Legal History

This chapter shows that deference to precedent and the early crystallization of the basic structure of the disaster narrative did not preclude innovation in what counted as a “disaster.” Instead, it ... More


Conclusion: “the unpardonable sin”

Mary Farmer-Kaiser

in Freedwomen and the Freedmen's Bureau: Race, Gender, and Public Policy in the Age of Emancipation

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2011
ISBN:
9780823232116
eISBN:
9780823234943
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fso/9780823232116.003.0007
Subject:
History, Social History

With varying degrees of success, African-American women encountered, trusted, challenged, and used the Freedmen's Bureau in their efforts to shape the outcome of emancipation. ... More


Freedwomen and the Freedmen's Bureau: Race, Gender, and Public Policy in the Age of Emancipation

Mary J. Farmer-Kaiser

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2011
ISBN:
9780823232116
eISBN:
9780823234943
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fso/9780823232116.001.0001
Subject:
History, Social History

Established by Congress in early 1865, the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands—more commonly known as “the Freedmen's Bureau”—assumed the Herculean task of overseeing ... More


No License; Nor No Deplomer: Regulating Private Medical Practice and Public Space

Gretchen Long

in Doctoring Freedom: The Politics of African American Medical Care in Slavery and Emancipation

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
July 2014
ISBN:
9780807835838
eISBN:
9781469601472
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/9780807837399_long.9
Subject:
History, African-American History

Three African American healers—John Donalson of Austin, Texas, Moses Camplin of Charleston, South Carolina, and Alexander Augusta of Washington, D.C, wrote to the Freedmen's Bureau about their ... More


Humanitarianism’s Markets: Brokering the Domestic Labor of Black Refugees, 1861–1872

Andrew Urban

in Brokering Servitude: Migration and the Politics of Domestic Labor during the Long Nineteenth Century

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780814785843
eISBN:
9780814764749
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814785843.003.0003
Subject:
History, American History: 19th Century

Chapter 2 focuses on the period of the Civil War and Reconstruction, when formerly enslaved persons, classified as “contrabands” and refugees, were placed as domestic workers in northern households. ... More


Anarchy at the Circumference: Statelessness and the Reconstruction of Authority in Emancipation North Carolina

Gregory P. Downs

in After Slavery: Race, Labor, and Citizenship in the Reconstruction South

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780813044774
eISBN:
9780813046440
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813044774.003.0006
Subject:
History, African-American History

Historians surely understand that the American state failed the freedpeople, but it is not clear that we understand why federal power failed them so badly, despite common explanations that focus upon ... More


A Revolution in the Courts

Melissa Milewski

in Litigating Across the Color Line: Civil Cases Between Black and White Southerners from the End of Slavery to Civil Rights

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780190249182
eISBN:
9780190249212
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190249182.003.0003
Subject:
History, American History: 19th Century, American History: 20th Century

Chapter 1 traces the long, hard-fought battle over black southerners’ legal rights that took place during and in the wake of the Civil War. Individual African Americans who fought for their rights in ... More


A New Promise of Freedom and Dignity

Janette Thomas Greenwood

in First Fruits of Freedom: The Migration of Former Slaves and Their Search for Equality in Worcester, Massachusetts, 1862-1900

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
July 2014
ISBN:
9780807833629
eISBN:
9781469604275
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/9780807895788_greenwood.8
Subject:
History, African-American History

This chapter studies the Civil War-era black migration to Worcester County, affording a rare glimpse into the lives and strategies of freedpeople, of black men, women, and children as they shaped and ... More


The Anatomy of Emancipation: The Creation of a Healthy Labor Force

Jim Downs

in Sick from Freedom: African-American Illness and Suffering during the Civil War and Reconstruction

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199758722
eISBN:
9780190254438
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199758722.003.0003
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This chapter examines why disease broke out among emancipated slaves after the Civil War, with particular reference to the federal government’s inability to develop a free labor economy in the ... More


Reconstructing an Epidemic: Smallpox among Former Slaves, 1862–1868

Jim Downs

in Sick from Freedom: African-American Illness and Suffering during the Civil War and Reconstruction

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199758722
eISBN:
9780190254438
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199758722.003.0005
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This chapter focuses on the smallpox epidemic, the most devastating medical crisis that erupted throughout the South after the Civil War, and how it claimed the lives of thousands of freed slaves ... More


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