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Constructing a Free Labor Market

Martin Ruef

in Between Slavery and Capitalism: The Legacy of Emancipation in the American South

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691162775
eISBN:
9781400852642
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691162775.003.0002
Subject:
Sociology, Politics, Social Movements and Social Change

This chapter studies the extent to which the Freedmen Bureau's effort to reinstate plantation labor for former slaves in the mid-1860s was associated with changes in the valuation of black labor. ... More


Status Attainment among Emancipated Slaves

Martin Ruef

in Between Slavery and Capitalism: The Legacy of Emancipation in the American South

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691162775
eISBN:
9781400852642
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691162775.003.0003
Subject:
Sociology, Politics, Social Movements and Social Change

This chapter analyzes the legacy of slavery for status attainment among the first generation of blacks who were liberated from this institution. Its quantitative findings suggest that categorical ... More


Freedwomen and the Freedmen's Bureau: Race, Gender, and Public Policy in the Age of Emancipation

Mary J. Farmer-Kaiser

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2011
ISBN:
9780823232116
eISBN:
9780823234943
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fso/9780823232116.001.0001
Subject:
History, Social History

Established by Congress in early 1865, the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands—more commonly known as “the Freedmen's Bureau”—assumed the Herculean task of overseeing ... More


Inventing American Exceptionalism: The Origins of American Adversarial Legal Culture, 1800-1877

Amalia D. Kessler

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780300198072
eISBN:
9780300224849
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300198072.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Legal History

It is widely accepted that American procedure—and indeed American legal culture as a whole—are adversarial (and distinctively so). Yet, precisely because this assumption is so deep-rooted, we have ... More


The Port Royal Experiment: A Case Study in Development

Kevin Dougherty

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9781628461534
eISBN:
9781626740822
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University Press of Mississippi
DOI:
10.14325/mississippi/9781628461534.001.0001
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

The victory at Port Royal, South Carolina in November 1861 left the Federal government with the responsibility for some ten thousand now-masterless slaves. Lacking a sufficient policy or plan for ... More


Educational Reconstruction

Hilary Green

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780823270118
eISBN:
9780823270156
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823270118.001.0001
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This study examines the ways in which black Richmonders, black Mobilians and their white allies created, developed and sustained a system of African American schools following the Civil War. As ... More


Too Great a Burden to Bear: The Struggle and Failure of the Freedmen's Bureau in Texas

Christopher B. Bean

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780823268757
eISBN:
9780823271771
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823268757.001.0001
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

In its brief seven-year existence, the Freedmen’s Bureau became the epicenter of the debate about Reconstruction. Cognizant of its responsibilities, partisans fiercely debated its necessity. ... More


Roots of the Black Hospital Reform Movement

Vanessa Northington Gamble

in Making a Place for Ourselves: The Black Hospital Movement, 1920–1945

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195078893
eISBN:
9780199853762
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195078893.003.0001
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

The origins of black hospitals and the roots of the hospital reform movement are discussed in this chapter. The analysis of the evolution of black hospitals traces back to early-19th-century American ... More


Reconstruction's Ragged Edge: The Politics of Postwar Life in the Southern Mountains

Steven E. Nash

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9781469626246
eISBN:
9781469628080
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469626246.001.0001
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

Reconstruction typically brings to mind war-torn plantations and battles over the meaning of freedom after the Civil War. Slavery was such a central part of southern life—permeating every aspect of ... More


Introduction: “a long time in want of a bureau”

Mary Farmer-Kaiser

in Freedwomen and the Freedmen's Bureau: Race, Gender, and Public Policy in the Age of Emancipation

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2011
ISBN:
9780823232116
eISBN:
9780823234943
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fso/9780823232116.003.0001
Subject:
History, Social History

Congress established the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands—more commonly known as the Freedmen's Bureau—in March 1865. Upon its creation, the short-lived and ... More


“that the freedwomen … may rise to the dignity and glory of true womanhood”: The Men, Purpose, and Gendered Freedom of the Freedmen's Bureau

Mary Farmer-Kaiser

in Freedwomen and the Freedmen's Bureau: Race, Gender, and Public Policy in the Age of Emancipation

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2011
ISBN:
9780823232116
eISBN:
9780823234943
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fso/9780823232116.003.0002
Subject:
History, Social History

The realization of policy of the Freedmen's Bureau rested foremost on its officials at the local level. Using the gospel of free labor as the platform, bureau officials and ... More


“a weight of circumstances like millstones about their necks to drag and keep them down”: Freedwomen, Federal Relief, and the Freedmen's Bureau

Mary Farmer-Kaiser

in Freedwomen and the Freedmen's Bureau: Race, Gender, and Public Policy in the Age of Emancipation

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2011
ISBN:
9780823232116
eISBN:
9780823234943
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fso/9780823232116.003.0003
Subject:
History, Social History

In the immediate post-emancipation South, the Freedmen's Bureau limited its federal relief activities to temporarily aiding former slaves and loyal white refugees with rations ... More


“the women are the controlling spirits”: Freedwomen, Free Labor, the Freedme's Bureau

Mary Farmer-Kaiser

in Freedwomen and the Freedmen's Bureau: Race, Gender, and Public Policy in the Age of Emancipation

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2011
ISBN:
9780823232116
eISBN:
9780823234943
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fso/9780823232116.003.0004
Subject:
History, Social History

In their efforts to transform the South into a free labor society, officials of the Freedmen's Bureau encountered an employment landscape complicated greatly by issues of ... More


“to put forth almost superhuman efforts to regain their children”: Freedwomen, Parental Rights, and the Freedmen's Bureau

Mary Farmer-Kaiser

in Freedwomen and the Freedmen's Bureau: Race, Gender, and Public Policy in the Age of Emancipation

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2011
ISBN:
9780823232116
eISBN:
9780823234943
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fso/9780823232116.003.0005
Subject:
History, Social History

Emancipation and the legal recognition of the African-American family that it conferred had granted, at least in theory, black parents the right to claim and control their own ... More


“strict justice for every man, woman, and child”: Gender, Justice, and the Freedmen's Bureau

Mary Farmer-Kaiser

in Freedwomen and the Freedmen's Bureau: Race, Gender, and Public Policy in the Age of Emancipation

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2011
ISBN:
9780823232116
eISBN:
9780823234943
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fso/9780823232116.003.0006
Subject:
History, Social History

Operating at best with a belief that freedmen and women required “a guardian rather than a jailor or hangman”, Freedmen's Bureau officials worked not only to defend the rights ... More


Conclusion: “the unpardonable sin”

Mary Farmer-Kaiser

in Freedwomen and the Freedmen's Bureau: Race, Gender, and Public Policy in the Age of Emancipation

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2011
ISBN:
9780823232116
eISBN:
9780823234943
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fso/9780823232116.003.0007
Subject:
History, Social History

With varying degrees of success, African-American women encountered, trusted, challenged, and used the Freedmen's Bureau in their efforts to shape the outcome of emancipation. ... More


The Freedmen’s Bureau Exception: The Triumph of Due (Adversarial) Process and the Dawn of Jim Crow

Amalia D. Kessler

in Inventing American Exceptionalism: The Origins of American Adversarial Legal Culture, 1800-1877

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780300198072
eISBN:
9780300224849
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300198072.003.0007
Subject:
Law, Legal History

Chapter 6 examines the Freedmen’s Bureau courts as an exception to the otherwise prevailing failure of conciliation courts to take root in American soil. Created to integrate the newly freed ... More


A Tale of Two Banks

Marcus Anthony Hunter

in Black Citymakers: How The Philadelphia Negro Changed Urban America

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199948130
eISBN:
9780199333202
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199948130.003.0002
Subject:
Sociology, Social Stratification, Inequality, and Mobility

This chapter details how the collapse of black banks impacted the financial livelihood of black Philadelphians generally and Black Seventh Warders specifically. Drawing on the concept of an “economic ... More


The Union County Ku-Klux in National Discourse

Elaine Frantz Parsons

in Ku-Klux: The Birth of the Klan during Reconstruction

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9781469625423
eISBN:
9781469625447
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469625423.003.0007
Subject:
History, African-American History

Journalists and political leaders outside Union County responded to and represented its violence, and how Union County elites controlled their violence would be understood and appropriated by ... More


A Splendid Failure?: Black Reconstruction <i>and Du Bois’s Tragic Vision of Politics</i>

Vijay Phulwani

in A Political Companion to W. E. B. Du Bois

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780813174907
eISBN:
9780813174914
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Kentucky
DOI:
10.5810/kentucky/9780813174907.003.0011
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

In this essay, Vijay Phulwani posits that Du Bois uses the language of tragedy in 1935’s Black Reconstruction in America to emphasize the constraints and limitations created by white supremacy and ... More


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