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Wheaton and McGhee: A Tale of Two Leaders

William D. Green

in Degrees of Freedom: The Origins of Civil Rights in Minnesota, 1865-1912

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780816693467
eISBN:
9781452950594
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Minnesota Press
DOI:
10.5749/minnesota/9780816693467.003.0010
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

Chapter 10 focuses on the rise of two black leaders in Minnesota who form a rivalry—Republican Frank Wheaton and Democrat Fredrick McGhee. Both men were Bookerites.


After St. Paul, Niagara

William D. Green

in Degrees of Freedom: The Origins of Civil Rights in Minnesota, 1865-1912

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780816693467
eISBN:
9781452950594
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Minnesota Press
DOI:
10.5749/minnesota/9780816693467.003.0014
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

Chapter 14 recounts the alliances between McGhee and W.E.B. Du Bois that deepens into friendship. During one of Du Bois’ trips to St. Paul McGhee proposes that Du Bois launch the Niagara Movement ... More


A Defining Moment for Mcghee

William D. Green

in Degrees of Freedom: The Origins of Civil Rights in Minnesota, 1865-1912

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780816693467
eISBN:
9781452950594
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Minnesota Press
DOI:
10.5749/minnesota/9780816693467.003.0013
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

Chapter 13 documents the conference of Washington’s National Afro-American Council (NAAC) that was held in St. Paul, 1902, organized by McGhee. What was intended to be his springboard to national ... More


Asserting “Manhood” Rights: The Niagara Movement’s First Year, 1905

Susan D. Carle

in Defining the Struggle: National Racial Justice Organizing, 1880-1915

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199945740
eISBN:
9780199369843
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199945740.003.0009
Subject:
History, American History: 19th Century, Social History

This chapter traces the founding and first year of development of the Niagara Movement, focusing in particular on its wide-ranging issue agenda and its efforts to develop a test case litigation ... More


A Call to Action

William D. Green

in Degrees of Freedom: The Origins of Civil Rights in Minnesota, 1865-1912

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780816693467
eISBN:
9781452950594
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Minnesota Press
DOI:
10.5749/minnesota/9780816693467.003.0012
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

Chapter 12 recounts how St. Paul was not immune to mob violence against black men; yet black leaders protested white-on-black attacks in the South, saying nothing about two near lynchings that had ... More


The Afro-American Council’s Internal History, 1898–1908

Susan D. Carle

in Defining the Struggle: National Racial Justice Organizing, 1880-1915

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199945740
eISBN:
9780199369843
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199945740.003.0006
Subject:
History, American History: 19th Century, Social History

This chapter analyzes the trajectory of the National Afro-American Council's internal history, which involved three stages: first, more radical members' efforts at dissent; second, Booker T. ... More


The Legacy

William D. Green

in Degrees of Freedom: The Origins of Civil Rights in Minnesota, 1865-1912

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780816693467
eISBN:
9781452950594
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Minnesota Press
DOI:
10.5749/minnesota/9780816693467.003.0015
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This chapter records the final days of McGhee, Wheaton (who had relocated to New York), and John Adams who showed ambivalence to Washington during the Wizard’ decline in power. Upon Adams’ death, his ... More


The Renaissance of the Cakewalk

William D. Green

in Degrees of Freedom: The Origins of Civil Rights in Minnesota, 1865-1912

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780816693467
eISBN:
9781452950594
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Minnesota Press
DOI:
10.5749/minnesota/9780816693467.003.0009
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

Chapter 9 examines how Minnesota’s black political and business elite, in recognizing Washington’s power, embraces Washington’s agenda for Southern black advancement through accommodation while ... More


A Certain Class of Citizens

William D. Green

in Degrees of Freedom: The Origins of Civil Rights in Minnesota, 1865-1912

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780816693467
eISBN:
9781452950594
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Minnesota Press
DOI:
10.5749/minnesota/9780816693467.003.0007
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

Chapter 7 documents the massing complaints of black Minnesotans against the discrimination they continued to encounters and a resolve to organize to confront it, associating for a time with militant ... More


The Election of J. Frank Wheaton

William D. Green

in Degrees of Freedom: The Origins of Civil Rights in Minnesota, 1865-1912

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780816693467
eISBN:
9781452950594
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Minnesota Press
DOI:
10.5749/minnesota/9780816693467.003.0011
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

Chapter 11 examines the campaign that led to Wheaton’s election as the first black legislator in Minnesota history.


Degrees of Freedom: The Origins of Civil Rights in Minnesota, 1865-1912

William D. Green

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780816693467
eISBN:
9781452950594
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Minnesota Press
DOI:
10.5749/minnesota/9780816693467.001.0001
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

Spanning the half-century after the Civil War, Degrees of Freedom draws a rare picture of black experience in a northern state and of the nature of black discontent and action within a predominantly ... More


Mr. Douglass and the Civilizable Characteristics of the Colored Race

William D. Green

in Degrees of Freedom: The Origins of Civil Rights in Minnesota, 1865-1912

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780816693467
eISBN:
9781452950594
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Minnesota Press
DOI:
10.5749/minnesota/9780816693467.003.0005
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

Chapter 5 looks at persistence of discrimination in public accommodations and the reluctance of patrons to end discriminatory practices.


Maurice Jernigan Takes a Stand

William D. Green

in Degrees of Freedom: The Origins of Civil Rights in Minnesota, 1865-1912

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780816693467
eISBN:
9781452950594
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Minnesota Press
DOI:
10.5749/minnesota/9780816693467.003.0002
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

Chapter 2 focuses on the role that barbers played to advance black equality.


The Sons of Freedom

William D. Green

in Degrees of Freedom: The Origins of Civil Rights in Minnesota, 1865-1912

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780816693467
eISBN:
9781452950594
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Minnesota Press
DOI:
10.5749/minnesota/9780816693467.003.0004
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

Chapter 4 looks at the attempt of black leaders to create an organization to aid blacks in acquiring farms, apprenticeships, and quality education.


Senate Bill no. 181

William D. Green

in Degrees of Freedom: The Origins of Civil Rights in Minnesota, 1865-1912

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780816693467
eISBN:
9781452950594
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Minnesota Press
DOI:
10.5749/minnesota/9780816693467.003.0006
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

Chapter 6 examines the national effort to end discrimination as reflected in Congress with enactment of the Civil Rights Act of 1875, the lack of impact that it had to secure rights to public ... More


On Becoming a Good Republican

William D. Green

in Degrees of Freedom: The Origins of Civil Rights in Minnesota, 1865-1912

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780816693467
eISBN:
9781452950594
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Minnesota Press
DOI:
10.5749/minnesota/9780816693467.003.0003
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

Chapter 3 looks at the celebration of black suffrage rights and the challenge of white patrons to blacks to work hard to be farmers and skilled laborers as a means of becoming bona fide Republicans, ... More


When America Came to St. Paul

William D. Green

in Degrees of Freedom: The Origins of Civil Rights in Minnesota, 1865-1912

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780816693467
eISBN:
9781452950594
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Minnesota Press
DOI:
10.5749/minnesota/9780816693467.003.0001
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

Chapter 1 shows the fall and rise of racial equality in Minnesota, using as an illustration the life of Jim Thompson.


Professor Washington, Leader of the Race

William D. Green

in Degrees of Freedom: The Origins of Civil Rights in Minnesota, 1865-1912

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780816693467
eISBN:
9781452950594
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Minnesota Press
DOI:
10.5749/minnesota/9780816693467.003.0008
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

Chapter 8 looks at the rise of Booker T. Washington as the new leader for the black race, anointed by the national white business elite.


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