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Lessons from haemoglobin

Julian C. Knight

in Human Genetic Diversity: Functional Consequences for Health and Disease

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199227693
eISBN:
9780191711015
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227693.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

Study of genetic variation at the globin genes has provided a series of fundamental insights the nature and extent of genetic diversity and its functional consequences. This chapter provides a primer ... More


The aging genome

Jan Vijg

in Aging of the Genome: The dual role of DNA in life and death

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198569237
eISBN:
9780191728242
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569237.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The emergence on the stage of DNA damage immediately raises the question of whether this type of genome alteration can itself be a cause of aging, or its molecular consequences in the form of ... More


Basics in Molecular Evolution

Xun Gu

in Statistical Theory and Methods for Evolutionary Genomics

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199213269
eISBN:
9780191594762
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213269.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies

Molecular evolution is the study of the process of evolution at the level of DNA, RNA, and proteins, in which the neutral or nearly neutral evolution model has provided the theoretical basis. Yet, ... More


DNA sequencing: the silent revolution

Peter Little

in A Century of Nature: Twenty-One Discoveries that Changed Science and the World

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780226284132
eISBN:
9780226284163
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226284163.003.0016
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The complete DNA sequence of any organism's genome provides unprecedented knowledge because nothing is left out. Traditionally, biological research has been based on incomplete information, so the ... More


The Enculturated Gene: Sickle Cell Health Politics and Biological Difference in West Africa

Duana Fullwiley

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691123165
eISBN:
9781400840410
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691123165.001.0001
Subject:
Anthropology, Social and Cultural Anthropology

In the 1980s, a research team led by Parisian scientists identified several unique DNA sequences, or haplotypes, linked to sickle cell anemia in African populations. After casual observations of how ... More


Balancing Selection and Disease

Norman A. Johnson

in Darwinian Detectives: Revealing the Natural History of Genes and Genomes

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195306750
eISBN:
9780199790203
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195306750.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Some forms of selection, called “balancing selection” can maintain variation. Human beta-hemoglobin is an example of a gene under balancing selection. Individuals having two copies of the sickle ... More


Biology Meets Computation

Arlindo Oliveira

in The Digital Mind: How Science is Redefining Humanity

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780262036030
eISBN:
9780262338394
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036030.003.0007
Subject:
Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence

This chapter describes how computers played a decisive role in the sequencing and understanding of the genomes of humans and other organisms. The discovery of the structure of DNA, by Watson and ... More


Statistical Theory and Methods for Evolutionary Genomics

Xun Gu

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199213269
eISBN:
9780191594762
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213269.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies

Evolutionary genomics is a relatively new research field with the ultimate goal of understanding the underlying evolutionary and genetic mechanisms for the emergence of genome complexity under ... More


Phylogenetic Relationships of Neotomine-Peromyscine Rodents Using DNA Sequences from Beta Fibrinogen and Cytochrome B: Relaciones FilogenÉTicas De Los Roedores Neotomino-Peromyscinos Utilizando Secuencias De Dos Loci Moleculares, El FibrinÓGeno Beta Y El Citocromo B

Serena A. Reeder and Robert D. Bradley

in The Quintessential Naturalist: Honoring the Life and Legacy of Oliver P. Pearson

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520098596
eISBN:
9780520916159
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520098596.003.0026
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter obtains DNA sequences from intron 7 of the beta fibrinogen gene for 21 taxa representing 14 genera of traditional neotomine-peromyscines, in order to examine phylogenetic relationships ... More


Genomics and Evolution

in Genomes and What to Make of Them

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226172958
eISBN:
9780226172965
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226172965.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter turns to the importance of genomics in the broader context of biology, and in particular in relation to the theory of evolution. It approaches evolution, however, from a direction ... More


The Evolutionary History and a Systematic Revision of Woodrats of the Neotoma lepida Group

James Patton

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520098664
eISBN:
9780520942592
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520098664.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This book details the evolutionary history of the desert woodrat complex (lepida group, genus Neotoma) of western North America. The analyses include standard multivariate morphometrics of museum ... More


An Introduction to the Genus Bibitnys (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae): Phylogenetic Position and Alpha Taxonomy

Guillermo D’Elia, Ulyses F. J. Pardiñas, and Philip Myers

in Mammalian Diversification: From Chromosomes to Phylogeography

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520098534
eISBN:
9780520916098
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520098534.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter considers the position of the genus Bibimys relative other sigmodontine rodents. It analyzes mitochondrial DNA sequences and provides evidence against the inclusion of Bibimys within the ... More


Robust estimation of natural selection using parametric codon models

Gavin A. Huttley and Von Bing Yap

in Codon Evolution: Mechanisms and Models

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199601165
eISBN:
9780191810114
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199601165.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter focuses on the use of parametric codon models to test the mode of natural selection. It describes the nature of the different models, demonstrating the importance of model assumptions to ... More


Life Out of Sequence: A Data-Driven History of Bioinformatics

Hallam Stevens

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780226080178
eISBN:
9780226080345
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226080345.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

During the last thirty years, computers have come to play an increasingly important role in biological work. Especially in the new ‘omic’ disciplines, biologists are as likely to be found in front of ... More


A Theoretical Overview of Genetic Maternal Effects: Evolutionary Predictions and Empirical Tests with Mammalian Data

Michael J. Wade, Nicholas K. Priest, and Tami E. Cruickshank

in Maternal Effects in Mammals

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226501192
eISBN:
9780226501222
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226501222.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Animal Behavior / Behavioral Ecology

This chapter reviews recent theoretical advances in relation to maternal-effect genes and the theory of relaxed selective constraint (RSC). It explains how to test theoretical predictions using ... More


The Red Queen’s Race

Arlindo Oliveira

in The Digital Mind: How Science is Redefining Humanity

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780262036030
eISBN:
9780262338394
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036030.003.0001
Subject:
Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence

This chapter introduces the idea that technology, invented millennia ago, is developing at an even increasing pace, creating the need for all systems to develop to avoid becoming obsolete. This is ... More


Diversification of Small Mammals in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil: Testing the Alternatives

Márcia C. Lara, Lena Geise, and Christopher J. Schneider

in Mammalian Diversification: From Chromosomes to Phylogeography

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520098534
eISBN:
9780520916098
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520098534.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter examines the phylogeographic patterns among rodents of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Based on comparative analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences from rodents, it suggests that the ... More


Population Genetics: the study of the genetic structure of human populations

Walter Bodmer and Bruce Winney

in Population in the Human Sciences: Concepts, Models, Evidence

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199688203
eISBN:
9780191767500
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199688203.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

Over the twentieth century, population genetics has enabled progressively finer subpopulation specification. This chapter traces the development of concepts and methods, beginning with the use of ... More


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