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America's Hundred Years' War: U.S. Expansion to the Gulf Coast and the Fate of the Seminole, 17631858

William S. Belko (ed.)

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813035253
eISBN:
9780813039121
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813035253.001.0001
Subject:
History, American History: early to 18th Century

Conventional history narratives tell us that in the early years of the Republic, the United States fought three wars against the Seminole Indians and two against the Creeks. However, this book argues ... More


“My negro Woman Judah”: William's Decision

Claudio Saunt

in Black, White, and Indian: Race and the Unmaking of an American Family

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195176315
eISBN:
9780199788972
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195176315.003.0003
Subject:
History, Social History

In the two decades preceding removal, Creeks and other Indians in the South were under great pressure to distance themselves from their black relatives. Georgia and the United States seized Creek ... More


Race and Removal: Katy's Compromise

Claudio Saunt

in Black, White, and Indian: Race and the Unmaking of an American Family

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195176315
eISBN:
9780199788972
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195176315.003.0004
Subject:
History, Social History

Many Creeks, including Katy Grayson, understood Indian removal as an object lesson in the power of race to shape their lives. The policies of the federal and state governments as well as scientific ... More


A Promising Reset: The Augusta Congress

John T. Juricek

Gene Allen Smith (ed.)

in Endgame for Empire: British-Creek Relations in Georgia and Vicinity, 1763-1776

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780813060743
eISBN:
9780813050881
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813060743.003.0002
Subject:
History, Social History

The proposed general congress at Augusta almost did not occur. Most Indians, especially the Upper Creeks and Lower Creeks, had good reasons to stay home. The southern governors other than host Wright ... More


Creek Ferment and the Plan of 1764

John T. Juricek

Gene Allen Smith (ed.)

in Endgame for Empire: British-Creek Relations in Georgia and Vicinity, 1763-1776

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780813060743
eISBN:
9780813050881
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813060743.003.0003
Subject:
History, Social History

British enjoyment of their great success at the Augusta Congress was short-lived. On December 24 renegade Lower Creeks killed fourteen settlers at Long Canes, South Carolina. Stuart and Wright were ... More


Introduction

Noeleen McIlvenna

in The Short Life of Free Georgia: Class and Slavery in the Colonial South

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9781469624037
eISBN:
9781469624051
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469624037.003.0001
Subject:
History, American History: early to 18th Century

This chapter establishes the central question of the book: what did the stakeholders want from their new colony? The class-focused English social and political structure is described, outlining the ... More


Apalache

Gilbert C. Din

in War on the Gulf Coast: The Spanish Fight against William Augustus Bowles

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780813037523
eISBN:
9780813042145
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813037523.003.0001
Subject:
History, Military History

This chapter provides a historical background to Apalache and Florida, and on the Natives and Spaniards from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries. The Spanish presence in Apalache revolved ... More


William Augustus Bowles Challenges the Spaniards

Gilbert C. Din

in War on the Gulf Coast: The Spanish Fight against William Augustus Bowles

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780813037523
eISBN:
9780813042145
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813037523.003.0002
Subject:
History, Military History

This chapter sketches Bowles's life to 1791, discussing displaced British merchants who wanted to retain their trade with the southeastern Indians and who used Bowles to further their commerce. ... More


Introduction

John T. Juricek

in Colonial Georgia and the Creeks: Anglo-Indian Diplomacy on the Southern Frontier, 17331763

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813034683
eISBN:
9780813038582
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813034683.003.0001
Subject:
History, American History: early to 18th Century

This book sheds light on the relationship between the English of colonial Georgia and the surrounding Indian communities. The book focuses on Anglo-Creek diplomacy during the period 1733 until 1763, ... More


Staking Out the Territory

John T. Juricek

in Colonial Georgia and the Creeks: Anglo-Indian Diplomacy on the Southern Frontier, 17331763

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813034683
eISBN:
9780813038582
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813034683.003.0004
Subject:
History, American History: early to 18th Century

The absence of proper administration and the long absence of trustee James Oglethorpe had a tremendous impact on colonial Georgia. The realization of the apparent difficulties in making the colony a ... More


A Wider War and Deeper Discord

John T. Juricek

in Colonial Georgia and the Creeks: Anglo-Indian Diplomacy on the Southern Frontier, 17331763

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813034683
eISBN:
9780813038582
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813034683.003.0006
Subject:
History, American History: early to 18th Century

This chapter sheds light on the period when King George II declared war on France in 1744. The focus of the campaigns fought elsewhere shifted from the south to the west and the southeast became more ... More


“the antient Friendship and Union”: The Anglo-Cherokee Alliance

Tyler Boulware

in Deconstructing the Cherokee Nation: Town, Region, and Nation among Eighteenth-Century Cherokees

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813035802
eISBN:
9780813038209
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813035802.003.0003
Subject:
History, American History: early to 18th Century

The year 1670 marked a seminal moment in Cherokee history. Far from the Cherokees' mountain homeland, Britain planted the seeds of a new epicenter of regional power near the confluence of the Ashley ... More


“in constant hostility with the Muskohge”: The Cherokee-Creek War

Tyler Boulware

in Deconstructing the Cherokee Nation: Town, Region, and Nation among Eighteenth-Century Cherokees

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813035802
eISBN:
9780813038209
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813035802.003.0004
Subject:
History, American History: early to 18th Century

The Cherokee-Creek War, which lasted roughly from 1715 to 1755, was the longest and most destructive conflict between Cherokees and other indigenous peoples during the eighteenth century. The war's ... More


Tradition and the Contemporary Queer: Sexuality, Nationality, and History in Drowning in Fire

Mark Rifkin

in When Did Indians Become Straight?: Kinship, the History of Sexuality, and Native Sovereignty

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199755455
eISBN:
9780199894888
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199755455.003.0007
Subject:
Literature, American, 19th Century Literature

Chapter 6 explores Creek scholar and novelist Craig Womack’s Drowning in Fire (2001). The novel presents a reconnection with traditional forms of family and community-making as predicated on a ... More


Destruction

Nathaniel Millett

in The Maroons of Prospect Bluff and Their Quest for Freedom in the Atlantic World

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780813044545
eISBN:
9780813046426
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813044545.003.0011
Subject:
History, African-American History

This chapter considers the destruction of the fort and surrounding village at Prospect Bluff in July 1816. The maroons at Prospect Bluff caused deep anxiety across the South. Whites and many Indians ... More


Edward Nicolls and His Black Allies

Nathaniel Millett

in The Maroons of Prospect Bluff and Their Quest for Freedom in the Atlantic World

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780813044545
eISBN:
9780813046426
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813044545.003.0006
Subject:
History, African-American History

At the same time that Edward Nicolls was advocating on behalf of the Red Sticks and Seminoles, his anti-slavery plan entered a new and more radical phase. In cooperation with the former slaves, ... More


Raw Country and Jeffersonian Dreams: The Racial Politics of Allotment

David A. Chang

in The Color of the Land: Race, Nation, and the Politics of Landownership in Oklahoma, 1832-1929

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
July 2014
ISBN:
9780807833650
eISBN:
9781469604398
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/9780807895764_chang.7
Subject:
Society and Culture, Native American Studies

This chapter explores the racial politics of the privatization of landownership (a process known as allotment). It observes that white agrarianism, white racial nationalism, and even a desire to ... More


Policy and the Making of Landlords and Tenants: Allotment, Landlessness, and Creek Politics, 1906–1920s

David A. Chang

in The Color of the Land: Race, Nation, and the Politics of Landownership in Oklahoma, 1832-1929

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
July 2014
ISBN:
9780807833650
eISBN:
9781469604398
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/9780807895764_chang.8
Subject:
Society and Culture, Native American Studies

This chapter traces how public policy was crucial to the making of a capitalist order in Oklahoma after statehood in 1907. It notes that along with taxation and credit, a critical policy in the ... More


We Were Negroes Then: Political Programs, Landownership, and Black Racial Coalescence, 1904–1916

David A. Chang

in The Color of the Land: Race, Nation, and the Politics of Landownership in Oklahoma, 1832-1929

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
July 2014
ISBN:
9780807833650
eISBN:
9781469604398
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/9780807895764_chang.9
Subject:
Society and Culture, Native American Studies

This chapter considers how, in a context of Jim Crow, disenfranchisement, and deepening economic inequality, African Americans and Creeks of African descent, who had long been suspicious of each ... More


Breaking Apart

John T. Juricek

Gene Allen Smith (ed.)

in Endgame for Empire: British-Creek Relations in Georgia and Vicinity, 1763-1776

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780813060743
eISBN:
9780813050881
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813060743.003.0008
Subject:
History, Social History

As disgruntled colonists moved closer to outright rebellion, the role that Indians might play in the conflict became a matter of major concern. Nowhere was this more true than in the Southeast, where ... More


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