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Reason's Nearest Kin: Philosophies of Arithmetic from Kant to Carnap

Michael Potter

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780199252619
eISBN:
9780191712647
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199252619.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This book is a critical examination of the astonishing progress made in the philosophical study of the properties of the natural numbers from the 1880s to the 1930s. It reassesses the brilliant ... More


Wittgenstein: Connections and Controversies

P. M. S Hacker

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
April 2005
ISBN:
9780199245697
eISBN:
9780191602245
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019924569X.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Consists of 13 thematically linked essays on different aspects of the philosophy of Wittgenstein, by one of the leading commentators on his work. After an opening overview of Wittgenstein’s ... More


The Significance of Philosophical Scepticism

Barry Stroud

Published in print:
1984
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198247616
eISBN:
9780191598494
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198247613.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The thesis of scepticism is a thesis about the human condition: the view that we can know nothing, or that nothing is certain, or that everything is open to doubt. This book examines the sceptical ... More


Analyticity and Apriority (1993) *

Nathan Salmon

in Content, Cognition, and Communication: Philosophical Papers II

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199284726
eISBN:
9780191713774
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199284726.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

This chapter criticizes the traditional conventionalist notion of analyticity. A notion of analyticity is proposed, on which sentences widely regarded as contingent a priori are, although indeed ... More


Conclusion

Michael Potter

in Reason's Nearest Kin: Philosophies of Arithmetic from Kant to Carnap

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780199252619
eISBN:
9780191712647
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199252619.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This concluding chapter summarizes the discussion in the preceding chapters. The book sought an answer to the question: can we give an account of arithmetic which does not make it depend for its ... More


Carnap’s Pragmatism and the Two Truths

Bronwyn Finnigan and Koji Tanaka

in Moonshadows: Conventional Truth in Buddhist Philosophy

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199751426
eISBN:
9780199827190
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199751426.003.0011
Subject:
Religion, Buddhism

A consequence of the Mādhyamika notion of two truths is that the normative role of truth is flattened, and thus the conventional authority of epistemic practices is undermined. This chapter offers a ... More


Naturalism and Ontology

Mary Leng

in Mathematics and Reality

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199280797
eISBN:
9780191723452
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199280797.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter clarifies and motivates the naturalist premise of the indispensability argument, which holds that we should look to our best scientific theories to discover what we have reason to ... More


Carnap's Lost World and Putnam's Paradox

Bas C. van Fraassen

in Scientific Representation: Paradoxes of Perspective

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199278220
eISBN:
9780191707926
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199278220.003.00011
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

In his Logische Aufbau, Rudolf Carnap presented a structuralist philosophy of science. Carnap exhibited a fluctuating awareness of the difficulty besetting that programme, and of the limited options ... More


An Empiricist Structuralism

Bas C. van Fraassen

in Scientific Representation: Paradoxes of Perspective

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199278220
eISBN:
9780191707926
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199278220.003.00012
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

The mechanization and mathematization of the world-picture in modern science has a rightful claim upon us to develop views of science that do justice to its revolutionary impact on the sciences ... More


Logic, Modality, and Metaphysics in Early Analytic Philosophy: C. I. Lewis Against Russell

Sanford Shieh

in Categories of Being: Essays on Metaphysics and Logic

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199890576
eISBN:
9780199980031
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199890576.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter treats C. I. Lewis' criticism of Bertrand Russell's material implication. This chapter gives an overview of the differences between Russell's conception of logic and contemporary ones. ... More


On “Being” and Being: Frege Between Carnap and Heidegger

Leila Haaparanta

in Categories of Being: Essays on Metaphysics and Logic

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199890576
eISBN:
9780199980031
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199890576.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

The chapter begins with the observation that one disagreement between logical empiricism and early analytic philosophy, on the one hand, and early phenomenology, on the other, concerned the relations ... More


Carnap's rational reconstruction

Penelope Maddy

in Second Philosophy: A Naturalistic Method

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199273669
eISBN:
9780191706264
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199273669.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

Like Kant, Carnap holds that many traditional philosophical controversies are actually ill-posed pseudo-problems. In Carnap's eyes, for example, there's no fact about which the skeptic and the ... More


Second philosophy of science

Penelope Maddy

in Second Philosophy: A Naturalistic Method

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199273669
eISBN:
9780191706264
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199273669.003.0023
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter returns to the compare-and-contrast approach of Part I, focusing this time on van Fraassen's constructive empiricism. The constructive empiricist holds that no evidence can support the ... More


Logic and Semantics in the Twentieth Century

Gabriel Sandu and Tuomo Aho

in The Development of Modern Logic

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195137316
eISBN:
9780199867912
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195137316.003.0040
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter explores logical semantics, that is, the structural meaning of logical expressions like connectives (it is not the case that, either or, if … then), quantifiers (there is, for all, ... More


David Kaplan: Formal Aspects of His Work

C. Anthony Anderson

in The Philosophy of David Kaplan

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195367881
eISBN:
9780199867585
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195367881.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

This chapter focuses on David Kaplan's work where formal logic plays an explicit or strongly implicit role. Topics covered include David's dissertation, which is squarely in the Frege‐Church ... More


Inductive Logic and the Probability that God Exists: Farewell to Sceptical Theism

Michael Tooley

in Probability in the Philosophy of Religion

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199604760
eISBN:
9780191741548
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199604760.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Suppose that the world contains n events, each of which is such that, judged in the light of the totality of known rightmaking and wrongmaking properties, it would be morally wrong for anyone to ... More


Later Empiricism and Logical Positivism*

John Skorupski

in The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780195148770
eISBN:
9780199835560
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195148770.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter provides a broadly sympathetic historical account of post-Kantian empiricist approaches to mathematics and logic. It focuses primarily but on John Stuart Mill’s radical empiricism and ... More


Naturalism, Transcendentalism, and Therapy

Penelope Maddy

in Transcendental Philosophy and Naturalism

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199608553
eISBN:
9780191729645
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199608553.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The goal of this paper is to characterize a particularly austere form of contemporary naturalism called ‘Second Philosophy’ using radical skepticism about the external world as a diagnostic ... More


Semantics for Logical Necessity

Nino B. Cocchiarella and Max A. Freund

in Modal Logic: An Introduction to its Syntax and Semantics

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195366587
eISBN:
9780199851898
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195366587.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

This chapter initially describes possible-worlds semantics, which was first introduced by Rudolf Carnap in 1946 in terms of his state-description semantics, for sentential modal logic. Carnap was not ... More


Quantified Modal Logic

Nino B. Cocchiarella and Max A. Freund

in Modal Logic: An Introduction to its Syntax and Semantics

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195366587
eISBN:
9780199851898
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195366587.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

This chapter describes the syntax of first-order modal predicate logic and develops the first-order extensions of the different sentential modal logics constructed in Chapter 2. The authors ... More


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