*John Buridan*

- Published in print:
- 2014
- Published Online:
- May 2015
- ISBN:
- 9780823257188
- eISBN:
- 9780823261499
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Fordham University Press
- DOI:
- 10.5422/fordham/9780823257188.001.0001
- Subject:
- Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

The Treatise on Consequences contains the most important treatment of logical consequence in the middle ages. Buridan was a philosopher working at the University of Paris in the mid-fourteenth ...
More

The Treatise on Consequences contains the most important treatment of logical consequence in the middle ages. Buridan was a philosopher working at the University of Paris in the mid-fourteenth century. The rediscovery of Aristotle’s logical works in the late twelfth century led to a revival and fresh development of logical theory, culminating in Buridan’s general treatment in the Treatise on Consequences. He gives a novel treatment of the categorical syllogism based on the notion of distribution, which laid the basis of the theory of the syllogism in traditional logic in succeeding centuries. He gives a general account of the modal terms ‘necessary’, ‘possible’ and ‘contingent’, proceeding to an entirely original treatment of modal syllogisms free from the problems that beset Aristotle’s modal syllogism. In particular, he gives a coherent account of the “ampliation” of the subject of divided modal propositions to the possible and setting out their logical inter-relationships systematically. The Latin text was edited from the three extant manuscripts in the 1970s, and was first translated into English in 1985. This entirely new translation aims for a more accurate and clearer rendering of Buridan’s text, and is accompanied by a substantial introduction outlining the context of Buridan’s treatment and explaining in detail his arguments and his theoretical position.Less

The Treatise on Consequences contains the most important treatment of logical consequence in the middle ages. Buridan was a philosopher working at the University of Paris in the mid-fourteenth century. The rediscovery of Aristotle’s logical works in the late twelfth century led to a revival and fresh development of logical theory, culminating in Buridan’s general treatment in the Treatise on Consequences. He gives a novel treatment of the categorical syllogism based on the notion of distribution, which laid the basis of the theory of the syllogism in traditional logic in succeeding centuries. He gives a general account of the modal terms ‘necessary’, ‘possible’ and ‘contingent’, proceeding to an entirely original treatment of modal syllogisms free from the problems that beset Aristotle’s modal syllogism. In particular, he gives a coherent account of the “ampliation” of the subject of divided modal propositions to the possible and setting out their logical inter-relationships systematically. The Latin text was edited from the three extant manuscripts in the 1970s, and was first translated into English in 1985. This entirely new translation aims for a more accurate and clearer rendering of Buridan’s text, and is accompanied by a substantial introduction outlining the context of Buridan’s treatment and explaining in detail his arguments and his theoretical position.

*John Buridan*

- Published in print:
- 2014
- Published Online:
- May 2015
- ISBN:
- 9780823257188
- eISBN:
- 9780823261499
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Fordham University Press
- DOI:
- 10.5422/fordham/9780823257188.003.0003
- Subject:
- Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

Whereas Aristotle based his theory of the syllogism on the dictum de omni et nullo, Buridan bases his account on ecthesis, or as the medievals called it, the "expository syllogism". He sets out a ...
More

Whereas Aristotle based his theory of the syllogism on the dictum de omni et nullo, Buridan bases his account on ecthesis, or as the medievals called it, the "expository syllogism". He sets out a general account of syllogistic validity in terms of distribution, summing it up in Conclusions 6, 7 and 8 in what became in subsequent centuries the rules of distribution: that any term distributed in the conclusion must be distributed in its premise; that the middle term must be distributed in at least one premise; and that nothing follows from two negatives. He extends the analysis to propositions of non-normal form, where the predicate precedes the copula, giving an exhaustive description of 25 valid moods in the three figures. Complications due to the ampliation of terms are explored, before he turns in Part II of Book III to syllogisms containing oblique terms, that is, terms in the accusative and genitive. Finally, he discusses syllogisms with relative and infinite terms.Less

Whereas Aristotle based his theory of the syllogism on the dictum de omni et nullo, Buridan bases his account on ecthesis, or as the medievals called it, the "expository syllogism". He sets out a general account of syllogistic validity in terms of distribution, summing it up in Conclusions 6, 7 and 8 in what became in subsequent centuries the rules of distribution: that any term distributed in the conclusion must be distributed in its premise; that the middle term must be distributed in at least one premise; and that nothing follows from two negatives. He extends the analysis to propositions of non-normal form, where the predicate precedes the copula, giving an exhaustive description of 25 valid moods in the three figures. Complications due to the ampliation of terms are explored, before he turns in Part II of Book III to syllogisms containing oblique terms, that is, terms in the accusative and genitive. Finally, he discusses syllogisms with relative and infinite terms.